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By Michael Lanza

The choices in tents for backpacking seem to get better every year, with lightweight models continually getting lighter and other advances that make tents sturdier and more livable without adding weight. But with all the options out there, how do you choose? The answer is simpler than you might think: It comes down to understanding the key differences that distinguish tents from one another—which will help you understand what you need.

Like tents, backpackers come in different sizes and their needs in a tent vary depending on their style of backpacking and where they go. In testing scores of backpacking tents over a quarter-century of testing and reviewing gear—formerly as the lead gear reviewer for Backpacker magazine for about 10 years and even longer running this blog—I’ve acquired a sense of what to look for in a tent and how to help people pick out one they like.

The five simple tips in this article will help you find the tent that’s best for your needs. Please share any tips of your own or your questions in the comments section at the bottom of this story; I try to respond to all comments.

See also my story “How to Choose the Best Ultralight Backpacking Tent for You,” which explains specific details and design differences that apply to all tents.

See “The 10 Best Backpacking Tents” and all backpacking tent reviews at The Big Outside.

Tet19 047 Me on Teton Crest Trail copy cropped 13 jpg
Hi, I’m Michael Lanza, creator of The Big Outside. Click here to sign up for my FREE email newsletter. Join The Big Outside to get full access to all of my blog’s stories. Click here for my e-guides to classic backpacking trips. Click here to learn how I can help you plan your next trip.

A backpacker at Sahale Glacier Camp in North Cascades National Park.
” data-image-caption=”David Ports at Sahale Glacier Camp in North Cascades National Park.
” data-medium-file=”https://i0.wp.com/thebigoutside.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Cas7-220-Sahale-Camp-North-Cascades-NP.jpg?fit=300%2C177&ssl=1″ data-large-file=”https://i0.wp.com/thebigoutside.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Cas7-220-Sahale-Camp-North-Cascades-NP.jpg?fit=900%2C529&ssl=1″ src=”https://i0.wp.com/thebigoutside.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Cas7-220-Sahale-Camp-North-Cascades-NP.jpg?resize=900%2C529&ssl=1″ alt=”A backpacker at Sahale Glacier Camp in North Cascades National Park.” class=”wp-image-37162″ srcset=”https://i0.wp.com/thebigoutside.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Cas7-220-Sahale-Camp-North-Cascades-NP.jpg?resize=1024%2C602&ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/thebigoutside.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Cas7-220-Sahale-Camp-North-Cascades-NP.jpg?resize=300%2C177&ssl=1 300w, https://i0.wp.com/thebigoutside.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Cas7-220-Sahale-Camp-North-Cascades-NP.jpg?resize=768%2C452&ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/thebigoutside.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Cas7-220-Sahale-Camp-North-Cascades-NP.jpg?resize=1080%2C635&ssl=1 1080w, https://i0.wp.com/thebigoutside.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Cas7-220-Sahale-Camp-North-Cascades-NP.jpg?w=1200&ssl=1 1200w” sizes=”(max-width: 900px) 100vw, 900px” data-recalc-dims=”1″ />A backpacker at Sahale Glacier Camp in North Cascades National Park. Click on the photo to see my 25 Favorite Backcountry Campsites.

#1 What Kind of Backpacker Are You?

Is tent weight your top priority, or weather resistance, or
interior space and livability? You’ll spend countless hours and nights, as well
as plenty of waking hours inside that shelter; make sure it’s going to be
enjoyable, and it all comes down to your personal style of backpacking.

Consider these three
backpacker profiles:

If you’re the kind
of backpacker who’s not interested in rising early and rushing out of camp, and
who prefers to hike for not much more than half the day and reach your next
camp with time to relax in the warm afternoon sun and perhaps take a swim in a
lake or creek, you
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The Fine Art of Stashing a Backpack in the Woods

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By Michael Lanza

Stashing a backpack in the woods is just what it sounds like. If you’re on a multi-day backpacking trip and want to take a side hike of any significant distance, like to a summit, and then return to the same spot to resume your backpacking route, it’s a waste of energy (not to mention entirely pointless) to carry your heavy pack with you. But there are ways to do it wrong, and ways to make sure your pack and everything inside it are still there and not torn apart or gone when you return. Here’s how to do it right.

The tips below are based on my experience of many thousands of trail miles and more than three decades of backpacking, dayhiking, climbing, trail running, and taking ultra-hikes and ultra-runs—including more than a quarter-century of doing this professionally and testing and reviewing gear as a past field editor for Backpacker magazine and running this blog.

Tet19 047 Me on Teton Crest Trail copy cropped 39
Hi, I’m Michael Lanza, creator of The Big Outside. Click here to sign up for my FREE email newsletter. Join The Big Outside to get full access to all of my blog’s stories. Click here for my e-books to classic backpacking trips. Click here to learn how I can help you plan your next trip.

A backpacker hiking the Spray Park Trail in Mount Rainier National Park.
” data-image-caption=”Todd Arndt hiking the Spray Park Trail in Mount Rainier National Park.
” data-medium-file=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/06230643/Todd-Arndt-hiking-the-Spray-Park-Trail-Mount-Rainier-National-Park-.jpg?fit=200%2C300&ssl=1″ data-large-file=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/06230643/Todd-Arndt-hiking-the-Spray-Park-Trail-Mount-Rainier-National-Park-.jpg?fit=683%2C1024&ssl=1″ src=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/06230643/Todd-Arndt-hiking-the-Spray-Park-Trail-Mount-Rainier-National-Park–683×1024.jpg?resize=683%2C1024&ssl=1″ alt=”A backpacker hiking the Spray Park Trail in Mount Rainier National Park.” class=”wp-image-41154″ style=”width:602px;height:903px” srcset=”https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/06230643/Todd-Arndt-hiking-the-Spray-Park-Trail-Mount-Rainier-National-Park-.jpg 683w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/06230643/Todd-Arndt-hiking-the-Spray-Park-Trail-Mount-Rainier-National-Park-.jpg 200w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/06230643/Todd-Arndt-hiking-the-Spray-Park-Trail-Mount-Rainier-National-Park-.jpg 768w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/06230643/Todd-Arndt-hiking-the-Spray-Park-Trail-Mount-Rainier-National-Park-.jpg 800w” sizes=”(max-width: 683px) 100vw, 683px” data-recalc-dims=”1″ />Todd Arndt hiking the Spray Park Trail in Mount Rainier National Park. Click photo to read about that trip.

Basically, you want to make sure no animals (including humans) will find it and take or damage the pack or anything inside. Most hikers aren’t dishonest, but some adults might mistakenly think a pack was inadvertently left behind and assume it’s fair game for whomever finds it, or that they should deliver it to whatever agency manages the land so that its owner might reclaim it later (which is not helpful to you for the remainder of your hike); and kids will more readily take something they find.

That’s more of a concern for me on popular hikes that attract a lot of inexperienced hikers. In more remote areas, where you’ll generally only see experienced backpackers who aren’t likely to make that assumption, I worry less about a pack being visible to people.

Wild animals are a concern virtually everywhere. Rodents, squirrels, and larger animals like
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Hubble’s Back, but Only Using One Gyro

Hubble gyros

The Hubble Space Telescope has experienced ongoing problems with one of its three remaining gyroscopes, so NASA has decided to shift the telescope into single gyro mode. While the venerable space telescope has now returned to daily science operations, single gyro mode means Hubble will only use one gyro to maintain a lock on its target. This will slow its slew time and decrease some of its scientific output. But this plan increases the overall lifetime of the 34-year-old telescope, keeping one gyro in reserve. NASA is also troubleshooting the malfunctioning gyro, hoping to return it online.

Last week, NASA said that the telescope and its instruments are stable and functioning normally.

Gyroscopes help the telescope orient itself in space, keeping it stable to precisely point at astronomical targets in the distant Universe. Hubble went into safe mode back in November 2023, and then again in April and May 2024 due to the ongoing issue, where the one gyro had been increasingly returning faulty readings.

Hubble gyros 1
The end of a Hubble gyro reveals the hair-thin wires known as flex leads. They carry data and electricity inside the gyro. Credit: NASA

Going in to safe mode suspends science operations, and in the meantime, engineers tried to troubleshoot to figure out why the gyro experiencing the fault-producing issues and doing work-arounds to get the telescope up and running again. The most recent last safe-mode event in May led the Hubble team to transition from a three-gyro operating mode to observing with only one gyro. This enables more consistent science observations while keeping the other operational gyro available for future use.

Launched in 1990, Hubble has more than doubled its expected design lifetime, providing stunning images and scientific discoveries that have changed our understanding of the Universe and re-written astronomy textbooks.

During its 34-year history, Hubble has had eight out of 22 gyros fail due to a corroded flex lead, which are thin (less than the width of a human hair) metal wires, that carry power in, and data out, of the gyro. The flex leads pass through a thick fluid inside the gyro and over time, the flex leads begin to corrode and can physically bend or break.

mike good hubble sm4
With his feet firmly anchored on the shuttle’s robotic arm, astronaut Mike Good maneuvers to retrieve the tool caddy required to repair the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph during the final Hubble servicing mission in May 2009. Periodic upgrades have kept the telescope equipped with state-of-the-art instruments, which have given astronomers increasingly better views of the cosmos. Credits: NASA

Thankfully, for the first 18 years of Hubble’s life in space, the telescope had the advantage of being able to be serviced and upgraded by space shuttle astronauts. For example, in 1999, four out of six gyros had failed, with the last one failing about a month before a servicing mission was scheduled to replace them (and do other upgrades to the telescope). This meant Hubble sat in safe mode waiting for the space shuttle and astronauts to arrive.

When the final planned Hubble servicing mission was (temporarily) canceled following the space shuttle Columbia disaster, engineers developed and inaugurated a two-gyro mode to prolong Hubble’s life. The mission was reinstated after outcry from scientists and the public, and so NASA figured out a way to mitigate the risks of flying the space shuttle. Servicing Mission 4 replaced all six gyros one last time in 2009, but it has been running on three since 2018. The
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A New Way to Prove if Primordial Black Holes Contribute to Dark Matter

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The early Universe was a strange place. Early in its history—in the first quintillionth of a second—the entire cosmos was nothing more than a stunningly hot plasma. And, according to researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), this soup of quarks and gluons was accompanied by the formation of weird little primordial black holes (PHBs). It’s entirely possible that these long-vanished PHBs could have been the root of dark matter.

MIT’s David Kaiser and graduate student Elba Alonso-Monsalve suggest that such early super-charged black holes were very likely a new state of matter that we don’t see in the modern cosmos. “Even though these short-lived, exotic creatures are not around today, they could have affected cosmic history in ways that could show up in subtle signals today,” Kaiser said. “Within the idea that all dark matter could be accounted for by black holes, this gives us new things to look for.” That means a new way to search for the origins of dark matter.

Dark matter is mysterious. No one has directly observed it yet. However, its influence on regular “baryonic” matter is detectable. Scientists have many suggestions for what dark matter could be, but until they can observe it, it’s tough to tell what the stuff is, exactly. Black holes could be likely candidates. But the mass of all the observable ones isn’t enough to account for the amount of dark matter in the cosmos. However, there may be a connection to black holes after all.

Black Holes Through Cosmic Time

Most of us are familiar with the idea of at least two types of black holes: stellar-mass and supermassive. There is also a population of intermediate-mass black holes, which are rare. The stellar-mass objects form when massive stars explode as supernovae and collapse to form black holes. These exist throughout many galaxies. The supermassive ones aggregate many millions of solar masses together. They form “hierarchically” from smaller ones and exist in the hearts of galaxies. The intermediate-mass ones probably form hierarchically as well and could be a hidden link between the other two types.

An image based on a supercomputer simulation of the cosmological environment where primordial gas undergoes the direct collapse to a black hole. Credit: Aaron Smith/TACC/UT-Austin.
An image based on a supercomputer simulation of the cosmological environment where primordial gas undergoes the direct collapse to create black holes. Credit: Aaron Smith/TACC/UT-Austin.

Black holes have formed throughout the history of the Universe. That’s why the idea of primordial black holes isn’t too much of a surprise, although they remain elusive. In their very primitive state, they’d be ultradense objects with the mass of an asteroid punched down into something the size of an atom. They probably didn’t last very long—maybe another quintillionth of a second. After formation, they either blinked out of existence or got scattered across the expanding Universe.

The Link Between Primordial Black Holes and Dark Matter

So, how could these weird PHBs affect the formation of dark matter if they winked in and out of existence so quickly? That’s where Kaiser and his student’s work come in. They suggest that as the first PHBs scattered, they somehow “tugged” on space-time and changed something that could explain dark matter. That same process could have produced even smaller black holes with a curious property called “color charge.” And, there’s a dark matter connection.

“Color charge” is a property of quarks and gluons, and it ends up gluing them together. Think of it as a “super-charge”. Kaiser and Alonso-Monsalve suggest that some of the very early PHBs had this “supercharge” in the same way as the quarks and gluons had it. If that’s true, then the earliest super-color-charged PHBs would have been an entirely new state of matter. We don’t see them around anymore because they likely evaporated a fraction of a second after they spawned. But, their existence was necessary, particularly to the formation of dark matter.

Even

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