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Adventure Motorcycle Riding in Pennsylvania Following The PA BDR X Route

When Adrian and Bryce Willis decided to go on an adventure motorcycle ride together, they chose the Pennsylvania Back Road Driving Routes (PA BDRX) as their destination. They both brought their own motorcycles, Adrian with his BMW F850GS and Bryce with his BMW F310GS, and set forth on an amazing adventure. In this blog post, we’ll tell you all about their adventure and share some tips for those who want to follow in their footsteps. We’ll cover everything from the father and son bonding experience to the scenic trails, camping and hotel accommodations, and, of course, the motorcycles. Get ready to saddle up and join us on this amazing journey!

Father and Son Bonding on the PA BDRX

The Pennsylvania Backcountry Discovery Routes (PA BDRX) is a fantastic way for fathers and sons to bond while exploring the great outdoors. Whether you are an experienced adventure motorcyclist or just getting started, the PA BDRX routes offer some of the best riding experiences on the East Coast.

The 20+ scenic byways cross picturesque farmland, wind through forested areas, and travel between rural villages and charming country towns. Motorcycling routes through Pennsylvania offer some of the East Coast’s best riding experiences. Backcountry Discovery Routes (BDR) has created 11 trans-state and regional routes specifically for dual-sport and adventure motorcycle travel since 2010, and they are now releasing their exciting new 500-mile PA Wilds BDR X

Before setting off on your motorcycling adventure in Pennsylvania, make sure that you have all of your safety gear, as well as any necessary supplies such as repair kits or spare parts, in case something goes wrong during your ride. It’s always important to stay aware of your surroundings when trail riding so that you can avoid potential hazards like wildlife or other riders – especially if you’re planning on camping overnight! Exploring off-road trails, routes, and primitive camping sites can make for an even more enriching experience, but it’s important to keep safety first always.

With its winding roads through beautiful scenery, lush forests, and remote areas with hidden gems waiting around every corner; Adventure Motorcycle Riding in Pennsylvania following The PA BDRX Route is sure to provide fathers and sons alike with memories that will last forever! Whether you choose roughing it outdoors under canvas tents or prefer hotel accommodations; there’s something here for everyone – no matter what kind of machine they ride: BMW f310gs, BMW f850GS, or any other make/model motorcycle.

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How Adventure Motorcycle Riding Strengthens Families

Adventure motorcycle riding is becoming increasingly popular, especially among families who are looking for a unique way to bond and explore the outdoors. While Pennsylvania has multiple places to ride, one particular route stands out above the rest: The PA BDR X Route. This 500-mile loop takes riders through some of the most beautiful landscapes in rural Pennsylvania, offering breathtaking views and plenty of opportunities for adventure along the way.

Father and Son, Adrian and Bryce Willis, recently took on this challenge, choosing this route because it offers something for everyone. From the breathtaking scenery to more challenging sections for those looking for an extra thrill, this route has it all. After months of preparation, they set off on their journey aboard two BMW f310gs and an f850GS – bikes perfect for tackling off-road terrain.

The PA BDR X Route provides plenty of entertainment, from camping spots nestled in lush forests to relaxing hotel accommodations if you need a break from roughing it out in nature’s elements. There are several tips and tricks that can make your adventure even more enjoyable, such as packing a first aid kit just in case, or making sure you have enough fuel before heading into uncharted territory!

The PA BDR X is a part of a larger network called The Adventure Motorcycle Riding Routes (AMRR). Established in 2010 by lifelong motorcycle enthusiast Ben Scraggs, AMRR now consists of eleven trans-state and regional routes across North America designed specifically for adventure motorcycling enthusiasts. In addition to providing excellent routes with spectacular views, AMRR also offers safety guidelines that should be followed whenever riding off-road and non-profit organizations dedicated to providing safe recreational access on public lands throughout North America via OHVs such as motorcycles!

If you’re looking for an unforgettable experience that will bring your family closer together while exploring some amazing places along the way, then look no further than The PA Wilds BDR X Route! With its stunning scenery and plethora of optional advanced sections, this 500-mile loop across Pennsylvania State Forests is sure to provide an incredible adventure no matter what type or style of motorcycle you choose! Start planning today so you can take advantage of all this route has to offer – happy trails!

Riding Adventure Motorcycles in Scenic Pennsylvania

Are you seeking a thrilling and adventurous outdoor experience? Consider embarking on an adventure motorcycle ride through picturesque Pennsylvania. By following the PA BDR X Route, you can discover and explore stunning regions of the state with your father or son.

Exploring a region’s terrain, weather conditions, geography, culture, history, and people is the best part of riding an off-road bike. It is critical to have reliable information on safety regulations and appropriate protective gear for off-road motorcycle tours in Pennsylvania.

Spaces for this year’s tours include the NEBDR (New England Backcountry Discovery Route) starting in Massachusetts in early September, followed by the Endless Mountains of Pennsylvania Tour in mid-October. This tour, led by Adrian and Bryce’s years of expertise traversing these routes themselves, covers approximately 400 miles across Northern Pennsylvania, offering unforgettable memories that will last a lifetime.

Backcountry Discovery Routes has designed 11 trans-state/regional routes to cater specifically to dual sport/adventure motorcycle travel. Each route includes detailed maps and GPS tracks, allowing you to plan an epic journey even if you are unsure where to begin. One well-liked route is Riding PA 44, which comprises over 70 miles of uninterrupted two-lane state highway between Coudersport and Jersey Shore, featuring twists, turns, and elevation changes, making it the perfect day trip for motorcycling enthusiasts.

If camping is not your style, numerous hotels are available throughout the area. Nonetheless, nothing beats waking up under the stars the following morning after a long day of exploring back roads with friends. So, don’t forget to pack a tent and sleeping bag on your next touring adventure with fellow motorcyclists!


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Taking in the Views While Experiencing the Ultimate Adventure

Looking for the ultimate adventure? Adventure Motorcycle Riding in Pennsylvania, following the PA BDR X Route, is the perfect way to experience the historical and natural beauty of Pennsylvania. Father and Son duo, Adrian and Bryce Willis, explored off-the-beaten-path areas that are rich with hidden gems on this 500-mile long route.

Riding through 21 scenic byways, they took in stunning views of picturesque farmland, forests, and rural villages while enjoying the ultimate adventure. This trip was one that will be remembered forever, with opportunities for trail riding and visits to charming country towns along the way.

The PA Wilds BDR X offers both beginner and advanced sections for a challenging riding experience. Riders can choose between a variety of different trails and roads depending on their skill level, from easy gravel roads with stunning views, to more technical single-track trails that require an advanced level of motorcycle riding skill. Those who have ridden on the MABDR will find familiar terrain here with additional optional advanced sections for a bit of extra fun.

Whether you plan your weekend adventure or a longer trip using The PA Wilds BDR X live revealer tool or simply go wherever your heart desires, this route is sure to provide an unforgettable experience filled with lifetime memories. Expect breathtaking landscapes, history lessons from locals about their customs and culture, and unique experiences that cannot be replicated elsewhere, from camping under starlit skies to staying at hotel accommodations along the way. Get ready for an incredible journey aboard your BMW F310GS or BMW F850GS – it’s time for some serious Adventure Motorcycle Riding in Pennsylvania!

Exploring Pennsylvania Trails, Camping, and Accomodations

Exploring Pennsylvania trails, camping, and accommodations with Adventure Motorcycle Riding is a great way to bond with your family, escape the hustle and bustle of everyday life, and take in the stunning scenery that Pennsylvania has to offer. Adrian and Bryce Willis, a father and son duo, took on this incredible adventure, following the PA BDR X route on their BMW F310GS and F850GS motorcycles.

If you’re considering taking the adventure motorcycle ride in Pennsylvania along the PA BDR X route, there are some things you should keep in mind. First, plan out your route ahead of time so that you know where you’re going and how long it will take. This includes researching the best trails along your chosen route, as well as camping spots or hotel accommodations available along the way if needed. Additionally, make sure to check out any safety tips that may be pertinent to your specific journey, as staying alert while riding is key. Finally, packing essential gear, such as protection from inclement weather or other items that might make your ride more enjoyable, can help create an unforgettable experience.

The PA Wilds BDR X covers 500 miles through Pennsylvania State Forests and bucolic farming landscapes across 21 scenic byways. Winding through picturesque farmland, forests, and rural villages, charming country towns like Big Valley via Route 655 offer riders some of the best riding experiences on East Coast roads! The optional advanced sections provide just enough challenge without being overly difficult for novice riders looking for an exciting adventure! To help enhance their experience even further, Adrian and Bryce document their journey using live-action videos and photos, which really help bring it all together when looking back at their trip later down the line.

Adventure Motorcycle Riding in Pennsylvania offers up some truly unique experiences for all levels of riders. So why not pack up those bikes and get exploring?

Getting Off the Beaten Path to Discover Pennsylvania’s Hidden Secrets

If you’re looking for an adventure of a lifetime, look no further than Pennsylvania. The Keystone State offers some of the best backroad driving routes on the entire East Coast, with breathtaking landscapes and stunning scenery that will leave you in awe.

Adrian and Bryce Willis, father and son from Wilmington NC, recently embarked on an unforgettable motorcycle journey along the PA BDR X route. This took them through Susquehannock State Forest, Cumberland Valley and Hawk Mountain, offering breathtaking views of meadows, farms, rivers and more. They stopped over at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, getting up close and personal with nature, as well as some cafes and restaurants run by locals to refuel on snacks or refreshments!

The PA Wilds BDR X is an extension loop off the Mid Atlantic BDR in Pennsylvania that offers expert riders up to 500 miles of optional advanced sections for a greater challenge! It starts in New Columbia covering all sorts of terrain including picturesque farmland, forested areas and rural villages – perfect opportunity to explore the lush Pennsylvania landscape if you’re into trail riding adventures! Adrian & Bryce rode on their BMW f310gs & BMW f850GS respectively while navigating their way through 21 scenic byways which included overnight camping spots as well as hotel accommodations along the Heart & Coal Route, a unique self guided experience, to uncover Pennsylvania’s hidden gems.

Whether you’re a novice rider or experienced adventurer, this route has something special for everyone who loves motorcycle roads through Pennsylvania. So why not give it a try?


Adventure motorcycle riding in Pennsylvania is an enjoyable experience that can bring families closer together. With the PA BDRX route, you can explore some of the most picturesque regions of the state and discover what it’s like to ride a motorcycle off-road. The Willis brothers are available to share their expertise and ensure that your tour is safe and memorable. Plan your adventure today and experience a journey filled with stunning landscapes, wildlife, cultural heritage sites, camping spots, and more!

Frontier Adventure

Will Wide Binaries Be the End of MOND?

It’s a fact that many of us have churned out during public engagement events; that at least 50% of all stars are part of binary star systems. Some of them are simply stunning to look at, others present headaches with complex orbits in multiple star systems. Now it seems wide binary stars are starting to shake the foundations of physics as they question the very theory of gravity. 

General relativity has been part of the foundation of modern physics since it was published by Albert Einstein in 1915. One of the challenges though is that, along with normal matter (known by its official name baryonic matter) general relativity is unable to explain the current theories of the evolution of the universe without dark matter.  Alas dark matter has not been observed in any lab experiment or indeed directly in the sky. 

The idea for dark matter was developed in the early 1930’s to explain the movement of the galaxies in the Coma Cluster.  It was Fritz Zwicky who coined the phrase dark matter in 1933 to explain the unseen matter that was driving the movement.  Current theories suggest there is something like five times more dark matter in the Universe than there is normal matter but It’s a type of matter that we know little about other than it doesn’t interact with normal baryonic matter. 

Dark Flow
The Coma Galaxy Cluster. It appears to participate in the dark flow.

The standard model – that describes how the building blocks of matter interact – assumes that the current laws of gravity are all correct however a ‘tweak’ is required to explain certain observations and that tweak is called dark matter. In other words, we can see the effect of dark matter but we just haven’t actually directly detected it yet. In a paper published by J. W. Moffat, there is a bold suggestion that maybe it’s the gravitational model that is incorrect.

Enter MOND – ‘Modified Newtonian Dynamics’ – which proposes an adjustment to Newton’s second law (nicely encapsulated in the formula that force equals mass multiplied by acceleration) to explain the movement of galaxies without dark matter. The theory, proposed by M. Milgrom in 1983 suggests that the gravitational force exerted upon a star in the outer reaches of a galaxy was proportional to the square of its centripetal acceleration (instead of the centripetal acceleration itself).  Remember the existing models do not explain this without inserting dark matter which we have yet to discover.  

The paper by Moffat suggests that they should be able to detect the changes proposed by MOND but in applying the formulas correctly the galaxy constrains must be significantly affected. Wide binary data from Gaia (the Global Astrometric Interferometer) seems to conclude that any modified gravity theory must reliy upon scale and length rather than acceleration.  If this continues to be the case for future observations then it may well mark the demise of the MOND model for good. 

Source : Wide Binaries and Modified Gravity (MOG)

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Red Sprites are Best Seen from Space

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Planet Earth is full of some truly awe-inspiring spectacles, but few are as intriguing as a sprite, which are officially known as a Transient Luminous Event (TLE) and consist of large-scale electric discharges that shoot upwards while occurring above the cloud tops in the Earth’s mesosphere at approximate altitudes of 50-90 km (31-56 mi). In October 2023, European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut, Dr. Andreas Mogensen, who is currently onboard the International Space Station (ISS) as Commander of the Expedition 70 mission, took an incredible image of a red sprite with the Davis camera as part of the Thor-Davis experiment and his Huginn mission.

Sprites have been observed from the ground and aircraft. However, the preferred observation method is from outer space due to the sprites occurring above the cloud tops and the low altitude of the ISS offering pristine views of these unique lightning features. While they are observed above cloud tops, they are hypothesized to originate from normal lightning near the Earth’s surface and act as a “balancing mechanism” used by the Earth’s atmosphere to distribute vertical electrical charges.

Since red sprites are essentially lightning strikes and visible for only a fraction of a second, specialized event-based cameras such as the Davis camera are required to precisely capture them. The Davis camera contrasts with a normal camera in that it does not take direct photographs, but instead creates images by sensing light and contract variances. Through this, the Davis camera capabilities are analogous to a normal camera taking 100,000 images per second.

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Images of a red sprite taken by the Davis camera from the International Space Station in October 2023 by Expedition 70 Commander, Dr. Andreas Mogensen. (Credit: ESA/DTU/ A. Mogensen)

“These images taken by Andreas are fantastic,” said Dr. Olivier Chanrion, who is a senior researcher at Danish Technical University (DTU) Space and lead scientist for this experiment. “The Davis camera works well and gives us the high temporal resolution necessary to capture the quick processes in the lightning.”

The Thor-Davis experiment builds off the Thor experiment also conducted by Dr. Mogensen during his first mission to the ISS in 2015. During that experiment, Dr. Mogensen shot a 160-second video displaying 245 blue jets, which are another type of lightning event that shoots up towards space, with results from those findings being published in a 2016 study in Geophysical Research Letters.

The earliest recorded report of sprites—though they weren’t called that right away—occurred in November 1885 from the R.M.S. Moselle as it was leaving port in Jamacia with the sprites then being described as a “meteorological phenomenon” while “sometimes tinged with prismatic hues, while intermittently would shoot vertically upwards continuous darts of light displaying prismatic colours in which the contemporary tints, crimson and green, orange and blue, predominated.”

It took more than 100 years for the first photographic evidence of sprites to happen, when a team of scientists from the University of Minnesota accidentally imaged electrical discharges using a low-light-level television camera in 1989, with their findings later being published in Science the following year. It wasn’t until a 1995 study published in Geophysical Research Letters that these electrical charges were officially dubbed “sprites”. In the last several decades, sprites have been observed from all continents except for Antarctica, along with being observed from the ground, aircraft, and even outer space.

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Image of red sprites taken in 2022 from the European Southern Observatory’s (ESO) La Silla Observatory in Chile. (Credit: Zdenek Bardon/ESO)

What new discoveries about sprites will researchers make in the coming years and decades? Only time will tell, and this is why we science!

As always, keep doing science & keep looking up!

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Europa Clipper Could Help Discover if Jupiter’s Moon is Habitable

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Since 1979, when the Voyager probes flew past Jupiter and its system of moons, scientists have speculated about the possibility of life within Europa. Based on planetary modeling, Europa is believed to be differentiated between a rocky and metallic core, an icy crust and mantle, and a warm water ocean up to 100 km (62 mi) in depth. Scientists theorize that this ocean is maintained by tidal flexing, where interaction with Jupiter’s powerful gravitational field leads to geological activity in Europa’s core and hydrothermal vents at the core-mantle boundary.

Investigating the potential habitability of Europa is the main purpose of NASA’s Europa Clipper mission, which will launch on October 10th, 2024, and arrive around Jupiter in April 2030. However, this presents a challenge for astrobiologists since the habitability of Europa is dependent on many interrelated parameters that require collaborative investigation. In a recent paper, a team of NASA-led researchers reviewed the objectives of the Europa Clipper mission and anticipated what it could reveal regarding the moon’s interior, composition, and geology.

The team consisted of researchers from the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL), the Beyond Center at Arizona State University, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Honeybee Robotics, the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), the Planetary Science Institute (PSI), the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL), NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and multiple universities. Their paper, “Investigating Europa’s Habitability with the Europa Clipper,” recently appeared in Space Science Reviews.

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Could shallow lakes be locked away in Europa’s crust? Europa Clipper will find out. Credit: NASA

What is “Habitability”?

When it comes to the search for life beyond Earth (aka. astrobiology), all of humanity’s efforts are currently focused on Mars. This will change in the coming years as missions destined for the outer Solar System conduct detailed studies of “Ocean Worlds” – icy bodies with interior oceans. This includes Europa, Ganymede, Titan, Enceladus, Triton, and possibly Pluto and Charon. The Europa Clipper will be the first of these missions to arrive – followed by the ESA’s JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) in 2031. It will spend the next four years orbiting Jupiter and making close flybys of Europa, studying its surface and interior with its advanced suite of instruments. As the Europa Study Team summarized in their 2012 report:

“Jupiter’s moon Europa is one the most promising candidates for hosting life today among ocean worlds in the Solar System. In its investigation of Europa’s habitability, the Europa Clipper mission seeks to understand the provenance of water, essential chemical elements and compounds, and energy, and how they might combine to make this moon’s environments suitable to support life.”

As the NASA-led team indicated in their study, the purpose of the Europa Clipper mission is not to detect life itself but to assess Europa’s ability to support life as we know it. This will consist of confirming (or refuting) the existence of Europa’s interior ocean and determining if it possesses the necessary chemical and energy sources for life to thrive. However, one of the main challenges in investigating the moon’s habitability is the nature of the concept itself. Nevertheless, the relevant parameters include hospitable temperatures, pressure, pH, salinity, and the presence of a solvent (such as water).

Steven D. Vance, the Deputy Section Manager for the Planetary Interiors and Geophysics Group at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), was also the paper’s lead author. As he explained to Universe Today via email:

“Habitability is the potential for supporting life, but not necessarily the presence of life. Some environments are more habitable than others. For example, a lush rainforest provides
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