On June 29, former South African president Jacob Zuma was sentenced to 15 months in prison for corruption during his presidency. Zuma—the first ethnic Zulu to hold the country’s highest office—has a loyal following. He also has many detractors, who blame his administration’s corruption for a stagnant economy and weakened democracy.
Zuma didn’t turn himself in until July 7, saying he was innocent and that jail could kill him at 79 years old. Within hours, protests and widespread looting, particularly in his home city of Durban, were reported as supporters stationed themselves around his compound and challenged police. That violence has led to at least 215 deaths and more than 2,500 arrests.
For South Africans like Amith Gosai, keeping track of what was happening on the ground was hard. His WhatsApp chats were flooded and confusing. Then he saw a note on his community WhatsApp group urging neighbors to join a sort of neighborhood watch channel on Zello, a “walkie-talkie” app that is fast becoming a tool for protest communication.
“This helped us tremendously to create awareness around the community as well as to quell fears,” Gosai told me via Twitter DM.
This Zello App has become my life
— Raylen (@Raylen_10) July 12, 2021Zello is the new vine
— no one (@theshyapricot) July 17, 2021
Gosai, who is also from Durban, was among 180,000 people who downloaded Zello in the wake of Zuma’s arrest. Users subscribe to channels to talk to each other, sending live audio files that are accessible to anyone listening in on the channel.
Zello was originally designed to help people communicate and organize after natural disasters. With Wi-Fi or a data connection, people can use it to broadcast their location, share tips, and communicate with rescuers or survivors in the aftermath of a hurricane, flood, or other emergency. In the US, Zello found traction in 2017’s Hurricane Harvey rescue efforts. The app is also used by taxi drivers, ambulance workers, and delivery personnel who want to send hands-free voice messages, according to Raphael Varieras, Zello’s vice president of operations, says. Because Zello is a voice-first platform, it’s faster than typing and requires no literacy skills.
But recent events suggest that use of Zello is increasingly being used to connect people in areas of unrest as well. Within hours of the most recent Israeli-Palestinian conflict, downloads skyrocketed to 100 times their usual rate, for example. And Cuba also saw a spike in downloads amid protests over shortages of food and medicine. Unsurprisingly, this development has prompted some countries to ban the app, including China, Venezuela, and Syria.
Without a formal emergency response system like the US’s 911, South Africans have been increasingly turning to Zello to coordinate ad hoc ambulances and neighborhood patrols. One channel, South Africa Community Action Network, boasts 11,600 paying members who donate for emergency services like ambulances, along with more than 33,000 non-paying members, according to a blog post on the site.
Guys please be advised that looters are listening in on Zello chats and using it to find weakpoints in certain areas
— Post Alone (@javharsingh) July 14, 2021
One Twitter user in South Africa I spoke to (who requested anonymity in light of the current dangerous situation) said that some people were using Zello to figure out which houses and storefronts were ripe for looting, while others were tuning in to gauge whether they should flee or stay where they are.
Another user, Javhar Singh, said via Twitter DM that he was using it as “live communication among community members to notify us about the whereabouts of looters,” adding: “It is way faster than the news.”
Crucially in such a tense situation, Zello is anonymous. “People don’t have access to your personal number like in WhatsApp,” says Gosai.
The speed, anonymity, and intimacy created by voice make Zello feel urgent. But those same characteristics could breed misinformation, which Zello does not currently monitor—anyone can use the app at any time to say whatever they want. In fact, Zello was used in planning and carrying out the January 6 insurrection at the US Capitol.
Zello’s popularity in South Africa also proves that online audio isn’t just a 2020 trend. Audio chat rooms on Clubhouse and Discord are built on the idea that people want to talk about common interests, and Facebook and Twitter are actively testing live audio on their platforms. Zello’s general audience, however, isn’t sticking around long enough to get to know people: they’re looking for news, fast and unfiltered.
“There’s a long history of Zello as a go-to app in times of
By: Tanya Basu
Title: How Zello keeps people in the loop during South Africa’s unrest
Sourced From: www.technologyreview.com/2021/07/20/1029765/zello-south-africa-zuma-unrest/
Published Date: Tue, 20 Jul 2021 16:01:05 +0000
I received the new gene-editing drug for sickle cell disease. It changed my life.
On a picturesque fall day a few years ago, I opened the mailbox and took out an envelope as thick as a Bible that would change my life. The package was from Vertex Pharmaceuticals, and it contained a consent form to participate in a clinical trial for a new gene-editing drug to treat sickle cell disease.
A week prior, my wife and I had talked on the phone with Haydar Frangoul, an oncologist and hematologist in Nashville, Tennessee, and the lead researcher of the trial. He gave us an overview of what the trial entailed and how the early participants were faring. Before we knew it, my wife and I were flying to the study site in Nashville to enroll me and begin treatment. At the time, she was pregnant with our first child.
I’d lived with sickle cell my whole life—experiencing chronic pain, organ damage, and hopelessness. To me, this opportunity meant finally taking control of my life and having the opportunity to be a present father.
The drug I received, called exa-cel, could soon become the first CRISPR-based treatment to win approval from the US Food and Drug Administration, following the UK’s approval in mid-November. I’m one of only a few dozen patients who have ever taken it. In late October, I testified in favor of approval to the FDA’s advisory group as it met to evaluate the evidence. The agency will make its decision about exa-cel no later than December 8.
I’m very aware of how privileged I am to have been an early recipient and to reap the benefits of this groundbreaking new treatment. People with sickle cell disease don’t produce healthy hemoglobin, a protein that red blood cells use to transport oxygen in the body. As a result, they develop misshapen red blood cells that can block blood vessels, causing intense bouts of pain and sometimes organ failure. They often die decades younger than those without the disease.
After I received exa-cel, I started to experience things I had only dreamt of: boundless energy and the ability to recover by merely sleeping. My physical symptoms—including a yellowish tint in my eyes caused by the rapid breakdown of malfunctioning red blood cells—virtually disappeared overnight. Most significantly, I gained the confidence that sickle cell disease won’t take me away from my family, and a sense of control over my own destiny.
Today, several other gene therapies to treat sickle cell disease are in the pipeline from biotech startups such as Bluebird Bio, Editas Medicine, and Beam Therapeutics as well as big pharma companies including Pfizer and Novartis—all to treat the worst-suffering among an estimated US patient population of about 100,000, most of whom are Black Americans.
But many people who need these treatments may never receive them. Even though I benefited greatly from gene editing, I worry that not enough others will have that opportunity. And though I’m grateful for my treatment, I see real barriers to making these life-changing medicines available to more people.
I feel very fortunate to have received exa-cel, but undergoing the treatment itself was an intense, monthslong journey. Doctors extracted stem cells from my own bone marrow and used CRISPR to edit them so that they would produce healthy hemoglobin. Then they injected those edited stem cells back into me.
It was an arduous process, from collecting the stem cells, to conditioning my body to receive the edited cells, to the eventual transplant. The collection process alone can take up to eight hours. For each collection, I sat next to an apheresis machine that vigorously separated my red blood cells from my stem cells, leaving me weakened. In my case, I needed blood transfusions after every collection—and I needed four collections to finally amass enough stem cells for the medical team to edit.
The conditioning regimen that prepared my body to receive the edited cells was a whole different challenge. I underwent weeks of chemotherapy to clear out old, faulty stem cells from my body and make room for the newly edited ones. That meant dealing with nausea, weakness, hair loss, debilitating mouth sores, and the risk of exacerbating the underlying condition.
By: Jimi Olaghere
Title: I received the new gene-editing drug for sickle cell disease. It changed my life.
Sourced From: www.technologyreview.com/2023/12/04/1084209/vertex-exacel-approval-gene-editing-sickle-cell-disease-patient/
Published Date: Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:30:00 +0000
Did you miss our previous article…
The Download: cleantech 2.0, and ‘jury duty’ on Chinese delivery apps
This is today’s edition of The Download our weekday newsletter that provides a daily dose of what’s going on in the world of technology.
Climate tech is back—and this time, it can’t afford to fail
A cleantech bust in 2011 left almost all the renewable-energy startups in the US either dead or struggling to survive.
Over a decade on, the excitement around cleantech investments and manufacturing is back, and the money is flowing again. A recent analysis estimates that total green investments reached $213 billion in the US during the 12 months beginning July, 2022.
However, as ‘cleantech 2.0’ startups inch towards commercialization, many of them still face the same issues that tripped up the green revolution a decade ago. Can they succeed where their predecessors failed? Read the full story.
Users are doling out justice on a Chinese food delivery app
Jury trials are plentiful on Chinese apps—especially Meituan, the country’s most popular food delivery service.
Offered as a way for restaurants to appeal bad reviews they believe are unreasonable, Meituan crowdsources help from users by showing them the review, details of the order, and notes from the restaurant. Then users can vote on whether to take down the review from the restaurant’s public page. More than six million users have now participated in ‘jury duty’ on the app.
Even though it has existed for a few years, many people have only recently become aware of Meituan’s public jury feature. It’s now frequently a viral topic on social media—and a source of joy for those nosy enough to weigh in on other people’s business. Read the full story.
Meet the 15-year-old deepfake victim pushing Congress into action
In October, Francesca Mani was one of reportedly more than 30 girls at Westfield High School in New Jersey who were victims of deepfake pornography. Boys at the school had taken photos of Francesca and her classmates and used AI to create sexually explicit images of them without their consent.
The practice is actually stunningly commonplace, but we rarely hear such stories—at least in part because many victims understandably don’t want to talk publicly. But, within just a day of learning about the violation, 15-year-old Francesca started speaking out and calling on lawmakers to do something about the broader problem. Her efforts are already starting to pay off with new momentum for legislation.
Francesca and her mother, Dorota, say that their activism aims particularly to support women and girls who might be less equipped to push for change. Our senior reporter Tate Ryan-Mosley spoke to them both—read her write-up of their interview.
This story is from The Technocrat, our weekly newsletter all about power, politics, and Silicon Valley. Sign up to receive it in your inbox every Friday.
I’ve combed the internet to find you today’s most fun/important/scary/fascinating stories about technology.
1 Inside the bitter feuds that will shape the future of AI
It seems most of today’s top AI companies were born out of arguments between rich, egomaniacal men. (NYT $)
How Microsoft navigated the recent OpenAI board turmoil. (New Yorker $)
OpenAI agreed to buy $51 million of AI chips from a startup backed by Sam Altman. (Wired $)
Adam D’Angelo helped to fire Altman. Now he has to work with him. (WSJ $)
Not every AI expert thinks superintelligence is on its way. (CNBC)
2 Satellite images suggest nearly 98,000 buildings in Gaza are damaged
The pictures were taken before the seven-day suspension of hostilities, which has now ended. (BBC)
Inside the satellite tech being used to reveal the extent of Gaza’s destruction. (Scientific American $)
3 A group of 56 nations have agreed to phase out coal
Including the US, which sends a strong signal. (AP $)
Why the UN climate talks are a moment of reckoning for oil and gas companies. (MIT Technology Review)
Climate experts are furious with the head of COP28 for spreading misinformation. (Sky)
4 We badly need to regulate AI in medicine
Here’s how we might approach that mammoth task. (Proto.Life)
+ Artificial intelligence is infiltrating health care. We shouldn’t let it make all the decisions. (MIT Technology Review)
5 Ozempic makes people want to drink less alcohol
Researchers need to collect more data to understand why, but it’s a potentially promising finding. (Wired $)
Weight-loss injections have taken over the internet. But what does this mean for people IRL? (MIT Technology Review)
6 As X descends into chaos, news outlets are turning to Reddit
The trouble is, it’s a very different beast. (WP $)
By: Charlotte Jee
Title: The Download: cleantech 2.0, and ‘jury duty’ on Chinese delivery apps
Sourced From: www.technologyreview.com/2023/12/04/1084321/the-download-cleantech-jury-duty-chinese-apps/
Published Date: Mon, 04 Dec 2023 13:15:00 +0000
Capitalizing on machine learning with collaborative, structured enterprise tooling teams
Advances in machine learning (ML) and AI are emerging on a near-daily basis—meaning that industry, academia, government, and society writ large are evolving their understanding of the associated risks and capabilities in real time. As enterprises seek to capitalize on the potential of AI, it’s critical that they develop, maintain, and advance state-of-the-art ML practices and processes that will offer both strong governance and the flexibility to change as the demands of technology requirements, capabilities, and business imperatives change.
That’s why it’s critical to have strong ML operations (MLOps) tooling, practices, and teams—those that build and deploy a set of software development practices that keep ML models running effectively and with agility. Capital One’s core ML engineering teams demonstrate firsthand the benefits collaborative, well-managed, and adaptable MLOps teams can bring to enterprises in the rapidly evolving AI/ML space. Below are key insights and lessons learned during Capital One’s ongoing technology and AI journey.
Standardized, reusable components are critical
Most MLOps teams have people with extensive software development skills who love to build things. But the continuous build of new AI/ML tools must also be balanced with risk efficiency, governance, and risk mitigation.
Many engineers today are experimenting with new generative AI capabilities. It’s exciting to think about the possibilities that something like code generation can unlock for efficiency and standardization, but auto-generated code also requires sophisticated risk management and governance processes before it can be accepted into any production environment. Furthermore, a one-size-fits-all approach to things like generating code won’t work for most companies, which have industry, business, and customer-specific circumstances to account for.
As enterprise platform teams continue to explore the evolution of ML tools and techniques while prioritizing reusable tools and components, they can look to build upon open-source capabilities. One example is Scikit-Learn, a Python library containing numerous supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms that has a strong user community behind it and which can be used as a foundation to further customize for specific and reusable enterprise needs.
Cross-team communication is vital
Most large enterprises have data scientists and engineers working on projects through different parts of the company. This means it can also be difficult to know where new technologies and tools are built, resulting in arbitrary uniqueness.
This underscores the importance of creating a collaborative team culture where communication about the big picture, strategic goals, and initiatives is prioritized—including the ability to find out where tools are being built and evolved. What does this look like in practice?
Ensure your team knows what tools and processes it owns and contributes to. Make it clear how their work supports the broader company’s mission. Demonstrate how your team can feel empowered not to build something from scratch. Incentivize reuse and standardization. It takes time and effort to create a culture of “innersourcing” innovation and build communications mechanisms for clarity and context, but it’s well worth it to ensure long-term value creation, innovation, and efficiency.
Tools must map to business outcomes
Enterprise MLOps teams have a broader role than building tools for data scientists and engineers: they need to ensure those tools both mitigate risk and enable more streamlined, nimble technology capabilities for their business partners. Before setting off on building new AI/ML capabilities, engineers and their partners should ask themselves a few core questions. Does this tool actually help solve a core problem for the business? Will business partners be able to use it? Will it work with existing tools and processes? How quickly can we deliver it, and is there something similar that already exists that we should build upon first?
Having centralized enterprise MLOps and engineering teams ask these questions can free up the business to solve customer problems, and to consider how technology can continue to support the evolution of new solutions and experiences.
Don’t simply hire unicorns, build
By: Miriam Friedel
Title: Capitalizing on machine learning with collaborative, structured enterprise tooling teams
Sourced From: www.technologyreview.com/2023/12/04/1083950/capitalizing-on-machine-learning-with-collaborative-structured-enterprise-tooling-teams/
Published Date: Mon, 04 Dec 2023 15:00:00 +0000
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