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The universe is littered with supermassive black holes. There’s one a mere 30,000 light-years away in the center of the Milky Way. Most galaxies have one, and some of them are more massive than a billion stars. We know that many supermassive black holes formed early in the universe. For example, the quasar TON 618 is powered by a 66 billion solar mass black hole. Since its light travels nearly 11 billion years to reach us, TON 618 was already huge when the universe was just a few billion years old. So how did these black holes grow so massive so quickly?

One idea is that some of the very first stars were giants. With a mass of more than 10,000 Suns, such a star would be very short-lived, and would quickly collapse into a large black hole. These first black holes would act as seeds in the center of a galaxy, consuming nearby material to grow quickly in size. Some of them would even collide and merge to form an even larger black hole. While it’s a reasonable model, computer simulations find that this process takes too long. This process can’t produce the kind of black holes we see in the early universe such as TON 618.

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A direct image of the supermassive black hole in M87. Credit: EHT Collaboration

Another idea is known as the direct collapse scenario. In this model, a small supermassive black hole forms all at once. Dense gas in the middle of a proto-galaxy cools enough to collapse under its own weight, forming a black hole. Since these black holes would have a head start on mass, they can quickly grow into the supermassive black holes we observe.

So far we haven’t been able to observe a direct collapse black hole (DCBH). A few years ago a couple of candidate DCBHs were discovered by their infrared signals. These might be confirmed when the James Webb Space Telescopes is (possibly) launched later this year. But recently a study argues that we might observe DCBHs by their radio signatures.

When black holes actively consume nearby matter, they can create powerful jets of hot plasma. These jets are radio loud and are one of the ways we identify supermassive black holes. Direct collapse black holes should have similar jets, but the jet material would be denser. And since DCBHs would form in the early universe, their radio signals would be more redshifted. This latest work argues that the radio signature of DCBHs would be similar in structure, but easily distinguishable from the radio jets we see today. The signature would also differ from jets created by seed black holes.

Unfortunately, these high-redshift radio sources can’t be seen by current radio telescopes. But they should be bright enough to be detected by the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and the proposed next generation Very Large Array (ngVLA).

Reference: Yue, B., and A. Ferrara. “Radio signals from early direct collapse black holes.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 506.4 (2021): 5606–5618.

The post If the First Black Holes Collapsed Directly, Could we Detect Radio Signals From Those Moments? appeared first on Universe Today.

Frontier Adventure

Review: Rocky Talkie Mountain Radio

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Two-Way Radio
Rocky Talkie Mountain Radio

$110 each/$220 per pair

6.1 oz./172.9g (one radio only), 7.9 oz./224g (including carabiners and leash)

rockytalkie.com

Over more than 30 years of climbing and skiing in the backcountry, I’ve had a few close calls, some directly due to the inability of my partner and I to hear or see one another. One of my most trusted partners—a longtime friend who once saved me from a potentially long lead-climbing fall by leaping down a steep hill at the route’s base to reel in many feet of rope—also once took me off belay before I reached the top of a pitch and anchored myself; fortunately, I didn’t fall. After relying on the sketchy low tech of shouting and rope signals for much too long, I’ve found a vastly more reliable, light, and inexpensive solution: the Rocky Talkie Mountain Radio.

On days of ski touring in the backcountry—where you need to know the location of your partners after skiing separately down runs and confirm that all are safe, and you can often be too far apart to hear or see one another and wind can drown out or distort shouts—I’ve found the Rocky Talkie Mountain Radio reliably provides clear communication, eliminating the need for often fruitless and frustrating shouts to one another.

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Hi, I’m Michael Lanza, creator of The Big Outside. Click here to sign up for my FREE email newsletter. Join The Big Outside to get full access to all of my blog’s stories. Click here for my e-books to classic backpacking trips. Click here to learn how I can help you plan your next trip.

The Rocky Talkie Mountain Radio.
” data-image-caption=”The Rocky Talkie Mountain Radio.
” data-medium-file=”https://i0.wp.com/thebigoutside.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Rocky-Talkie-Mountain-Radio-closeup-2.jpg?fit=300%2C225&ssl=1″ data-large-file=”https://i0.wp.com/thebigoutside.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Rocky-Talkie-Mountain-Radio-closeup-2.jpg?fit=900%2C675&ssl=1″ src=”https://i0.wp.com/thebigoutside.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Rocky-Talkie-Mountain-Radio-closeup-2.jpg?resize=900%2C675&ssl=1″ alt=”The Rocky Talkie Mountain Radio.” class=”wp-image-62090″ srcset=”https://i0.wp.com/thebigoutside.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Rocky-Talkie-Mountain-Radio-closeup-2.jpg?resize=1024%2C768&ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/thebigoutside.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Rocky-Talkie-Mountain-Radio-closeup-2.jpg?resize=300%2C225&ssl=1 300w, https://i0.wp.com/thebigoutside.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Rocky-Talkie-Mountain-Radio-closeup-2.jpg?resize=768%2C576&ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/thebigoutside.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Rocky-Talkie-Mountain-Radio-closeup-2.jpg?resize=150%2C113&ssl=1 150w, https://i0.wp.com/thebigoutside.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Rocky-Talkie-Mountain-Radio-closeup-2.jpg?w=1200&ssl=1 1200w” sizes=”(max-width: 900px) 100vw, 900px” data-recalc-dims=”1″ />The Rocky Talkie Mountain Radio.

I’ve also used the Mountain Radio resort skiing at Northern California’s Palisades-Tahoe and Sugar Bowl resorts with my young-adult son, enabling us to discuss which runs to ski whenever we were too far apart to hear one another, or to locate one another when we took different runs. That’s particularly helpful when skiing unfamiliar resorts. (Radios are less necessary with a group who are all familiar with the resort and can plan where to rendezvous after a run and a phone call can usually clear up any miscommunication.)

The Rocky Talkie Mountain Radio is simple enough for a young child to master—and skiing parents know how easily one can lose a fast, young kid on the slopes. Yes, many resorts have cell service. But a cell phone is usually buried in a pocket where its sound is muffled and you have to remove a glove or mitten to operate it, whereas you can clip a two-way radio to a shoulder strap of a small pack—near your ear—where you need only to reach over and press the talk button to speak to a partner and will
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Starship | 360 Video of Liftoff

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Starship returned to integrated flight testing with its second launch from Starbase in Texas. While it didn’t happen in a lab or on a test stand, it was absolutely a test. What we did with this second flight will provide invaluable data to continue rapidly developing Starship.

On November 18, 2023, Starship successfully lifted off at 7:02 a.m. CT from Starbase in Texas and achieved a number of major milestones, including all 33 Raptor engines on the Super Heavy Booster starting up successfully and, for the first time, completed a full-duration burn during ascent.

This 360-degree view comes from the top of the launch tower at Starbase in Texas, providing a front row seat to watch liftoff of the world’s most powerful launch vehicle ever developed.

Follow us on X.com/SpaceX and go to spacex.com for more on this exciting flight.

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10 Expert Tips for Hiking With Trekking Poles

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By
Michael Lanza

If
you’ve opened this story, you probably already recognize this truth: For
backpackers, dayhikers, climbers, mountain runners, and others, trekking poles
noticeably reduce strain, fatigue, and impact on leg muscles and joints, feet,
back—and really on your entire body. And that’s true no matter how much weight
you’re carrying, whether a daypack, an ultralight backpack, or a woefully heavy
backpack.

But
if you’ve opened this story, you also probably already have a sense of this
often-overlooked truth: How you use poles matters. If you use them correctly,
you’re gaining their benefits on virtually every step of your hike; if not,
they become dead weight. This story provides 10 highly effective tips on using
poles, from basics like adjusting pole length, gripping the strap, and moving uphill
and downhill on trails, to managing steep terrain, fording streams, advanced
tips for aiding balance, and more.

The tips below are based on my experience of many thousands of trail miles and more than three decades of backpacking, dayhiking, climbing, trail running, and taking ultra-hikes and ultra-runs—plus a quarter-century of testing and reviewing gear as a past field editor for Backpacker magazine and for many years running this blog. I believe this story will give you expert tips on hiking with trekking poles that you will not find anywhere else.

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Hi, I’m Michael Lanza, creator of The Big Outside. Click here to sign up for my FREE email newsletter. Join The Big Outside to get full access to all of my blog’s stories. Click here for my e-books to classic backpacking trips. Click here to learn how I can help you plan your next trip.

A backpacker on the Teton Crest Trail in Grand Teton National Park.
” data-image-caption=”Jeff Wilhelm backpacking the Teton Crest Trail n Grand Teton National Park. Click photo for my e-book “The Complete Guide to Backpacking the Teton Crest Trail.”
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