Connect with us

Universe Today recently explored the importance of studying impact craters and what they can teach us about finding life beyond Earth. Impact craters are considered one of the many surface processes—others include volcanism, weathering, erosion, and plate tectonics—that shape surfaces on numerous planetary bodies, with all of them simultaneously occurring on Earth. Here, we will explore how and why planetary scientists study planetary surfaces, the challenges faced when studying other planetary surfaces, what planetary surfaces can teach us about finding life, and how upcoming students can pursue studying planetary surfaces, as well. So, why is it so important to study planetary surfaces throughout the solar system?

“Planetary surfaces record the history of the Solar System, a history that’s almost entirely lost to us here on Earth,” Dr. Paul Byrne, who is an Associate Professor of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis, tells Universe Today. “Our planet is active and has processes that erode, bury, or destroy its ancient surfaces, so we have a limited understanding of the early days of our own planet. But that ancient record is (largely) preserved on the Moon, Mars, Mercury, and even smaller objects such as asteroids, so by studying them we’re getting a better understanding of our own planet. And it works both ways: by applying what we know of Earth, we’re able to get a better handle on why the surfaces of other worlds look the way they do.”

While the Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old, the reason why it lacks ancient surface features is due to the surface processes mentioned above, as all of them are very active on the Earth and causing the surface to drastically change over the planet’s lifetime. However, it is plate tectonics that is arguably the biggest contributor for altering the Earth’s surface. This involves the recycling of the Earth’s surface and subsurface materials due to our planet’s seven major and eight minor tectonic plates interacting with each other over vast periods of geologic time as they spread, smash, and even slide past each other through the three types of plate boundaries known as divergent, convergent, and transform plate, respectively. While studying all these processes on the Earth are conducted through direct examination, laboratory analyses, and satellite imagery, what are some of the challenges that scientists encounter when studying planetary surfaces on other worlds?

Dr. Byrne tells Universe Today, “Studying the surfaces of other worlds is challenging for several reasons, the first (and biggest) being that we have to get there! We’re limited in what we can learn with telescopes from Earth (either on the surface or in space), because those telescopes are generally designed to study truly enormous and vastly distant features like nebulae. So, to properly ‘see’ the surfaces of bodies in the Solar System, we need to send spacecraft there—either to fly by or, preferably, orbit. In many cases, once we’re there we can image the surface and take other measurements relatively easily.”

Dr. Byrne continues by telling Universe Today, “But for worlds such as Venus and Titan, which have thick atmospheres, we need radar to see through to the surface. Then we have to make sense of what we’re actually seeing! That’s where we use ‘comparative planetology’, applying what we know of Earth (and other places we’ve visited) to piece together the story of what we’re seeing. It’s challenging, especially for a place we’ve never visited before, but also extremely exciting!”

Also called remote sensing, satellites and orbiters perform a variety of tasks during a flyby or once in orbit around a planetary body that range from direct images to scientific measurements, including spectroscopy, temperature, and surface composition, just to name a few. As its name implies, a flyby is when a spacecraft is designed to fly past a planetary body—or bodies—and conduct as much science as possible before the spacecraft passes it. Two of the most famous flyby missions in the history of space exploration are the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 spacecraft. These brave, robotic pioneers conducted flybys of the outer planets that greatly expanded our knowledge and understanding of not only the planets, but their many moons, as well.

They discovered volcanic activity on Jupiter’s moon, Io, and a lack of craters on Europa, indicating the potential existence of a liquid water ocean beneath its icy surface. They obtained the first images of Saturn’s ravioli-like moon, Pan, to complement a few other Saturnian moons they also discovered. Additionally, they imaged several other previously discovered moons, including Titan, Rhea, Dione, Tethys, Enceladus, and Mimas. While Voyager 1’s trajectory took it out of the solar system, Voyager 2 continued to Uranus and Neptune, imaging their moons of Miranda and Triton,
Did you miss our previous article…
https://mansbrand.com/how-to-get-a-john-muir-trail-wilderness-permit-in-2024/

Continue Reading

Frontier Adventure

Gravastars are an Alternative Theory to Black Holes. Here’s What They’d Look Like

gravastar jpg

One of the central predictions of general relativity is that in the end, gravity wins. Stars will fuse hydrogen into new elements to fight gravity and can oppose it for a time. Electrons and neutrons exert pressure to counter gravity, but their stability against that constant pull limits the amount of mass a white dwarf or neutron star can have. All of this can be countered by gathering more mass together. Beyond about 3 solar masses, give or take, gravity will overpower all other forces and collapse the mass into a black hole.

While black holes have a great deal of theoretical and observational evidence to prove their existence, the theory of black holes is not without issue. For one, general relativity predicts that the mass compresses to an infinitely dense singularity where the laws of physics break down. This singularity is shrouded by an event horizon, which serves as a point of no return for anything devoured by the black hole. Both of these are problematic, so there has been a long history of trying to find some alternative. Some mechanism that prevents singularities and event horizons from forming.

One alternative is a gravitational vacuum star or gravitational condensate star, commonly called a gravastar. It was first proposed in 2001, and takes advantage of the fact that most of the energy in the universe is not regular matter or even dark matter, but dark energy. Dark energy drives cosmic expansion, so perhaps it could oppose gravitational collapse in high densities.

gravastar 1 jpg
Illustration of a hypothetical gravastar. Credit: Daniel Jampolski and Luciano Rezzolla, Goethe University Frankfurt

The original gravastar model proposed a kind of Bose-Einstein condensate of dark energy surrounded by a thin shell of regular matter. The internal condensate ensures that the gravastar has no singularity, while the dense shell of matter ensures that the gravastar appears similar to a black hole from the outside. Interesting idea, but there are two central problems. One is that the shell is unstable, particularly if the gravastar is rotating. There are ways to tweak things just so to make it stable, but such ideal conditions aren’t likely to occur in nature. The second problem is that gravitational wave observations of large body mergers confirm the standard black hole model. But a new gravastar model might solve some of those problems.

The new model essentially nests multiple gravastars together, somewhat like those nested Matryoshka dolls. Rather than a single shell enclosing exotic dark energy, the model has a layers of nested shells with dark energy between the layers. The authors refer to this model as a nestar, or nested gravastar. This alternative model makes the gravastar more stable, since the tension of dark energy is better balanced by the weight of the shells. The interior structure of the nestar also means that the gravitational waves of a nestar and black hole are more similar, meaning that technically their existence can’t be ruled out.

That said, even the authors note that there is no likely scenario that could produce nestars. They likely don’t exist, and it’s almost certain that what we observe as black holes are true black holes. But studies such as this one are great for testing the limits of general relativity. They help us understand what is possible within the framework of the theory, which in turn helps us better understand gravitational physics.

Reference: Jampolski, Daniel and Rezzolla, Luciano. “Nested solutions of gravitational condensate stars.” Classical and Quantum Gravity 41 (2024): 065014.

The post Gravastars are an Alternative Theory to Black Holes. Here’s What They’d Look Like appeared first on Universe Today.

Did you miss our previous article…
https://mansbrand.com/japans-new-h3-rocket-successfully-blasts-off/

Continue Reading

Frontier Adventure

Japan’s New H3 Rocket Successfully Blasts Off

240125 slim moon3 1024x513 1 jpg

Japan successfully tested its new flagship H3 rocket after an earlier version failed last year. The rocket lifted off from the Tanegashima Space Center on Saturday, February 17, reaching an orbital altitude of about 670 kilometers (420 miles). It deployed a set of micro-satellites and a dummy satellite designed to simulate a realistic payload.

With the successful launch of the H3, Japan will begin transitioning away from the previous H-2A rocket which has been in service since 2001 and is set to be retired after two more launches. Several upcoming missions depend on the H3, so this successful test was vital.

The launch came after two days of delays because of bad weather. The H3 rocket, built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, is now set to become the main launch vehicle of Japan’s space program. The rocket’s first flight in March 2023 failed to reach orbit, which resulted in the loss of an Earth imaging satellite.

The successful launch and deployment of the satellites was a relief for JAXA and members of the project. A livestream of the launch and subsequent successful orbit insertion showed those in the JAXA command cheering and hugging each other.

“I now feel a heavy load taken off my shoulders,” said JAXA H3 project manager Masashi Okada, speaking at a press briefing after the launch. “But now is the real start for H3, and we will work to steadily improve it.”

H3 stands about 57-meter (187-feet) tall and is designed to carry larger payloads. The two microsatellites were deployed approximately 16 minutes and 43 seconds after liftoff. They included an Earth observation satellite named CE-SAT-IE, developed by Canon Electronics, and TIRSAT, an infrared Earth observation instrument that will observe the temperature of the Earth’s surface and seawater.

“We feel so relieved to be able to announce the good results,” JAXA President Hiroshi Yamakawa said at the briefing. Yamakawa added that the main goals of H3 are to secure independent access to space and allow Japan to be competitive as international demand for satellite launches continues to grow. “We made a big first step today toward achieving that goal,” he said.

Image of SLIM lander on moon
An image sent back by a mini-probe shows Japan’s SLIM lander on its side on the lunar surface. (JAXA / Takara Tomy / Sony Group / Doshisha Univ.)

The successful launch comes after two other recent successes for JAXA last month where the H-2A rocket successfully placed a spy satellite into orbit, and just days later JAXA’s robotic SLIM (Smart Lander for Investigating Moon) made the first-ever precise “pinpoint” Moon landing – although unfortunately the lander came down on its side. However, during the final stages of the descent two autonomous rovers were successfully deployed: a tiny hopping robot and the other designed to roll about the surface. Both have sent back pictures and can continue exploring and sending back information even if SLIM cannot be operated.

The post Japan’s New H3 Rocket Successfully Blasts Off appeared first on Universe Today.

Did you miss our previous article…
https://mansbrand.com/european-satellite-ers-2-to-reenter-earths-atmosphere-this-week/

Continue Reading

Frontier Adventure

European Satellite ERS-2 to Reenter Earth’s Atmosphere This Week

ERS 2 reentry how and why is it happening pillars 1024x576 1 jpg

One of the largest reentries in recent years, ESA’s ERS-2 satellite is coming down this week.

After almost three decades in orbit, an early Earth-observation satellite is finally coming down this week. The European Space Agency’s (ESA) European Remote Sensing satellite ERS-2 is set to reenter the Earth’s atmosphere on or around Wednesday, February 21st.

Trail Blazing Mission

Launched atop an Ariane-4 rocket from the Kourou Space Center in French Guiana on April 21st, 1995, ERS-2 was one of ESA’s first Earth observation satellites. ERS-2 monitored land masses, oceans, rivers, vegetation and the polar regions of the Earth using visible light and ultraviolet sensors. The mission was on hand for several natural disasters, including the flood of the Elbe River across Germany in 2006. ERS-2 ceased operations in September 2011.

Reentry
Anatomy of the reentry of ERS-2. ESA

ERS-2 was placed in a retrograde, Sun-synchronous low Earth orbit, inclined 98.5 degrees relative to the equator. This orbit is typical for Earth-observing and clandestine spy satellites, as it allows the mission to image key target sites at the same relative Sun angle, an attribute handy for image interpretation.

Ice
ERS-2 tracks and ice floe. ESA

The Last Days of ERS-2

Reentry predictions for the satellite are centered on February 21st at 00:19 Universal Time (UT)+/- 25 hours. As we get closer, expect that time to get refined. The mass of ERS-2 at launch (including fuel) was 2,516 kilograms. Expect most of the satellite to burn up on reentry.

Orbit
The orbital path of ERS-2. Orbitron

For context, recent high profile reentries include the UARS satellite (6.5 tons, in 2011), and the massive Long March-5B booster that launched the core module for China’s Tiangong Space Station in late 2022 (weighing in at 23 tons).

ERS2
ERS-2 in the clean room on Earth prior to launch. ESA

ESA passed its first space debris mitigation policy in 2008, 13 years after ERS-2 was launched. In 2011, ESA decided to passively reenter the satellite, and began a series of 66 deorbiting maneuvers to bring its orbit down from 785 kilometers to 573 kilometers. Its fuel drained and batteries exhausted, ERS-2 is now succumbing to the increased drag of the Earth’s atmosphere as we near the peak of the current solar cycle.

North Prague Floods ERS

Continue Reading

Trending