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“How much can you bench?”

Who among us hasn’t heard that question, especially from guys who either never go to the gym, or who are so wrapped up in their fragile egos that they refuse to discover the true secrets of efficient muscle development? Training to build a fantastic chest isn’t about heavy single-rep bench presses. It’s about understanding how the chest muscles truly work and coming up with an intelligent and focused strategy for positive change. In other words, if you want a great chest, leave the bench-pressing ego to others and take a far more intelligent road to success. First step: Build your knowledge.

Two Main Functions

The chest muscles perform two main functions. The first involves pushing the body away from something. A push-up would be a good example of this function. With a push-up, you are literally pushing your body away from the floor and the chest muscles act as the primary moving force. The contraction point is when your arms are extended fully and your chest is flexed. On almost every exercise you work primary and secondary muscles. With chest-pressing movements (exercises similar to push-ups except that you’re pushing something away from the body, as with a bench press), the primary muscle is the chest, but there are also two joint movements involved – that of the elbow joint and the shoulder joint. The supportive muscles of the triceps and deltoid come into play and become secondary muscles being worked. The key focus of a chest pressing exercise should be on the chest, but these secondary muscles inevitably get some work also.

Chest pressing exercises can be done from a wide variety of angles from incline to flat to decline, but particular emphasis should be given to incline movements as the upper chest is the most difficult area for most men to truly feel and develop.

The second main function of the chest involves drawing the arms across the front of the body. If you stand with your arms extended out to the sides, then move your arms forward until your hands push together in front of your chest, and you will feel the contraction point of this second chest function. This is the action involved in dumbbell flye-type movements, which would also include variations such as pec-deck and cable crossovers. When doing these types of movements, the triceps and deltoids play a much smaller secondary role. In fact, it’s important on these exercises to keep your elbows in a slightly bent position throughout the full range of motion of the exercise, from stretch through contraction. Locking your elbows out straight during a flye-type movement only invites serious injury, especially during the stretching portion of the exercise, as when the dumbbells are lowered in an arc out and away from the body.

Exercise Essentials

Far and away, the greatest injury prevention of all when weight training is exercise perfection. This entails learning the absolute perfect form of each exercise and focusing all your effort on maintaining that perfect form throughout each set. Your fullest attention should be on finding the absolute feel of the exercise – the feeling of a full, squeezing contraction, followed by a perfect arc toward a focused and controlled stretch; performing each rep with control and concentration.

When doing any chest exercise, it’s also essential to keep your shoulders in their natural position. Many men tend to push their shoulders forward with the weight during the contraction of a movement and this prevents the chest muscles from fully contracting by throwing emphasis on the front deltoids. Instead, you should use your mind while moving into the contraction of the exercise to focus on flexing only the chest muscles. Each repetition of any pressing or flye-type movement should end with a solid chest contraction. Also, your chest should be lifted by slightly expanding the rib cage. But be cautious not to over-arch the spine (as some men do when trying to bench press way too much weight), as this also takes the contraction away from the target muscle and can lead to debilitating injury.

In addition to exercise perfection and intense focus during the exercise, building a great chest also requires an attack from a variety of angles, using a mix of pressing and flye movements. Also use a wide range of repetitions – anywhere from eight to 15 reps per set – always working in perfect form toward positive failure. This means the last repetition you do on a set (with your own strength and without over-using those frequently abused forced reps) is the last one you can possibly do without sacrificing exercise form.

Build your workouts around three exercises, using three or four fully focused sets each, and shake it up from one workout to the next by using your knowledge and experience to consistently vary your routines.

Use these guiding principles with focus, discipline and consistency and before you know it, you’ll have the chest you’ve always wanted.

The Exercises

Incline Barbell Press

Using a 35- to 45-degree incline bench, grip the barbell slightly beyond shoulder width. With arms fully extended, begin by contracting your chest for a moment and then slowly lower the bar to the top of your clavicle. Keep both elbows pulled back so they’re in line with the shoulder joint – and directly under your hands – throughout the movement. Push the bar back to a full contraction by focusing on pushing with your chest muscles.

Incline Dumbbell Press

This exercise is essentially similar to the barbell press, but during contractions, press the ends of the dumbbells together to increase the intensity of the squeeze. Keep your elbows pulled back in line, shoulders in their natural position, rib cage slightly lifted and lower the inside edge of the dumbbells just outside your armpits.

Flat Dumbbell Press

Press the ends of the dumbbells together during an intense contraction and slowly lower the dumbbells so that their inside edge comes within an inch or two of your armpit.


Dips can be performed to emphasize either the chest or the triceps. For chest, flare your elbows out slightly and roll your head forward so your chin comes toward your chest. Begin at the top with arms extended and don’t lower your body until you have found the absolute squeeze in your chest muscles. Then lower your body with slow control and feel the full stretch across your chest.


Place hands at shoulder width and straighten your arms so your chest muscles are flexed. Keep your entire body – from ankles to shoulders – in a rigid straight line. Flare your elbows out slightly and lower your upper body to the floor without bending at the waist. Pause in the stretch position for a moment, and then push your body away from the floor by contracting your chest muscles.

Flat Dumbbell Flye

Lying on a flat bench, hold the dumbbells above your chest with the ends touching. Bend your elbows slightly and maintain this angle while lowering the dumbbells out in a perpendicular arc away from your body. At the bottom stretch point, your elbows and hands should be in a straight line with your shoulders.  Keep tension on your chest muscles even at the bottom of the stretch and use your chest to squeeze the dumbbells back together.

Incline Dumbbell Flye

Essentially, this is the same as a flat flye except it’s performed on a 35- to 45-degree incline bench. Focus the contractions on your upper chest by lifting your rib cage slightly without over-arching your spine. With arms locked in a slightly bent position throughout the movement, have the dumbbells touch together at arms length above your face.

Pec Deck

Adjust the seat height so your hands and elbows extend forward on a flat plane with your shoulder joint. With elbows slightly bent, bring the handles together and squeeze your chest muscles hard, finding the full contraction. Keeping your elbows locked in a slightly bent position, slowly let the weight stretch your arms back and then smoothly use your chest to return to contraction.

Cable Crossovers

Using the high pulleys, bend slightly at the waist so your chest is pushed forward. Be sure your shoulders are down in their natural position, not shrugged up into your ears. Begin by extending your arms and squeezing your chest. Then let the weight stretch your arms back in a controlled arc until your hands are on a flat plane with your shoulders. Feel the stretch across your whole chest and then draw your arms forward by contracting your chest and bringing your hands together. 

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By: Team FitRx
Title: Secrets to Building a Bigger Chest
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Published Date: Fri, 09 Oct 2020 14:20:10 +0000

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Ripped Leg Blast for Carved Thighs



Powerful and thick thighs require gut-busting exercises like squats and leg presses. However, once you have acquired adequate thigh mass and strength, you should consider adding some balance and sharpness to the muscle bellies in your thighs. Although tough to accomplish, leg extensions provide a great way to carve the separations between the muscle bellies, and to accentuate the “teardrop” shape of the four quadriceps muscles of the anterior thigh.

Active Muscles in Leg Extensions

The three vasti muscles comprise most of the anterior thigh.1 The vastus medialis covers the medial (inner) part of the femur bone (thigh bone). When it is well developed, it forms a teardrop-like shape over the medial side of the knee joint. The vastus lateralis muscle attaches to the lateral (outer) part of the femur bone. The vastus intermedius connects to the femur bone between the vastus lateralis and the vastus medialis muscles. The fibers of all three vasti muscles come together at the quadriceps tendon, which crosses the patella (kneecap) to attach to the tibia bone just below the knee.1

Together, the three vasti muscles extend the leg at the knee joint, although the vastus intermedius may be more fatigue resistant than the vastus lateralis.2 The vastus medialis oblique (VMO), which is a small part of the vastus medialis muscle, attaches to the medial part of the patella. It is thought to help the patella track properly during movement of the knee. Improper tracking can increase the likelihood for knee injury.

The vastus medialis and especially the VMO part of this muscle are primarily responsible for tibial rotation (rotation of the tibia bone of the lower leg on the femur) during knee extension. This rotation or “twist” has been shown to increase the activation of the VMO portion of the vastus lateralis even more than doing knee extensions with the hip adducted (thigh rotated so that the medial portion of the knee is facing mostly upwards).3 Dorsiflexion of the foot (moving the ankles so the toes are pointing towards your head) also increases the activation of the VMO by more than 20 percent.4 Likely this is because the dorsiflexor muscles stabilize the tibia during knee flexion and resist rotation of the tibia on the femur as the knee straightens.

The fourth muscle of the quadriceps group is the rectus femoris muscle. It attaches to the anterior part of the hip bone just above the hip joint.1 The largest bulk of the muscle fibers are located on the upper three-quarters of the thigh, whereas the largest belly of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis are more inferior (i.e., closer to the knee). The distal end of the rectus femoris muscle becomes tendinous and it creates a deep valley between the lateral and medial vastus muscles as it approaches the knee.1 It assists the other quadriceps muscles by extending the leg at the knee joint, although it is less effective when the hip is flexed than if it is straight.

Leg Extensions

The three vastus muscles of the anterior thigh are strongly activated by single-leg knee extensions. The rectus femoris is not activated as strongly, but it does undergo some overload when the anterior thigh is under contractile effort, about halfway up to the top of each repetition.

1. You should always warm up your knees with some stationary cycling prior to getting into leg extensions. Furthermore, the resistance on your first set should be fairly light to allow the joint to fully warm up before you get to the heavier stuff.

2. Adjust the knee extension machine so that the pivot point of the lifting arm is directly adjacent to the center of the side of your knee joint.

3. Position the ankle roller/leg pad over the lower part of the leg (above the ankle joint).

4. Take about three seconds to slowly extend (straighten) both leg so that the weight is lifted upward from the stack.

5. Continue upwards until the tibia and the femur bones form a straight line and the knee angle is straight. Hold this for two seconds at the top.

6. Slowly lower the weight (about four seconds down) towards the starting position. Once the knee has reached 90 degrees, start the upwards extension phase again. Continue for 12-15 repetitions for the first set. Lower the number of repetitions but increase the resistance for subsequent sets.

7. On the next sets, lift the weight upwards until the knee joint becomes almost straight, but just slightly short of a total knee lockout. Be careful that you do not “jam” the knee joint into a fully locked out position, because this could cause knee cartilage damage5, especially with heavy weights. Hold the top position for a count of three before lowering the weight.

8. Lower the weight slowly (four to five seconds) towards the starting position where your knee is flexed to 90 degrees. Just before the weight stack contacts the remaining plates at the bottom, start lifting it upward for the next repetition.

The downward movement should be slower than the upward phase because you are resisting the pull of gravity. The slow lowering of the weight stretches the muscle under a resistance and this is a great stimulus to improve muscle shape and size.6

Make sure that you do not hold your breath during the lift upwards.7 Rather take a breath at the bottom (start) of the lift, and exhale as you extend the knees/legs. Take another breath at the top and slowly exhale as the weight is lowered. Take another breath at the bottom and repeat the sequence.

This is a mechanically simply exercise, but it really can be very challenging and blood depriving8,9, especially if you try to control the weight as it is moving up and down. However, if you are willing to work through some discomfort, you will be soon enjoying your new shape and slabs of carved thighs.

GettyImages 674163248 600


1. Moore K.L. Clinically Orientated Anatomy. Third Edition. Williams & Willkins, Baltimore, 1995; pp 373-500.

2. Watanabe K, Akima H. Neuromuscular activation of vastus intermedius muscle during fatiguing exercise. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2010;20:661-666.

3. Stoutenberg M, Pluchino AP, Ma F et al. The impact of foot position on electromyographical activity of the superficial quadriceps muscles during leg extension. J Strength Cond Res 2005;19:931-938.

4. Coburn JW, Housh TJ, Cramer JT et al. Mechanomyographic and electromyographic responses of the vastus medialis muscle during isometric and concentric muscle actions. J Strength Cond Res 2005; 19:412-420.

5. Senter C, Hame SL. Biomechanical analysis of tibial torque and knee flexion angle: implications for understanding knee injury. Sports Med 2006;36:635-641.

6. Alway SE, Winchester PK, Davis ME et al. Regionalized adaptations and muscle fiber proliferation in stretch- induced enlargement. J Appl Physiol 1989;66:771-781.

7. Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011;43:1334-1359.

8. Denis R, Bringard A, Perrey S. Vastus lateralis oxygenation dynamics during maximal fatiguing concentric and eccentric isokinetic muscle actions. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2011;21:276-282.

9. Ueda C, Kagaya A. Muscle reoxygenation difference between superficial and deep regions of the muscles during static knee extension. Adv Exp Med Biol 2010;662:329-334.

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By: Stephen E. Alway, Ph.D., FACSM
Title: Ripped Leg Blast for Carved Thighs
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PRIMAL Preworkout



Training hard and intensely is the only way to train – you can’t step into the gym in low gear or
asleep at the switch and expect results. To get the most out of every training session with no
compromises, you need a pre-workout that will power your performance and enable you to crush
it every time you train. Bottom line, you need to maximize your workouts by pushing yourself to
your limits and that’s what Animal’s PRIMAL Preworkout delivers.

A Better Pump

PRIMAL is Animal’s most comprehensive pre-workout supplement ever, and is scientifically
designed for the advanced, hard trainer. Animal worked tirelessly to find the right combination of
ingredients that could be worthy of the Animal name. First on the agenda was giving you a better
pump, which is why PRIMAL Preworkout is empowered with the breakthrough, patented
3DPump-Breakthrough ® . Not only does it increase nitric oxide for the valued “pump,” but it also
helps increase exercise capacity and endurance and helps optimize vascular endothelial function,
aka vascularity.†

Other key benefits of PRIMAL come from four scientifically formulated blends that work in tandem
to deliver the ultimate pre-workout:

• Endurance & Performance Complex so you can train longer and harder. Beta-alanine,
betaine and taurine are combined as a powerful endurance trio†. Beta-alanine is a vital ingredient
used to combat the urge to quit.

• Focus & Intensity Complex helps you keep your head in the iron game so you train hard and
maintain focus. Includes the amino acid tyrosine, which is involved in neurotransmitter production;
Huperzine A for brain health; and choline bitartrate, which supports energy metabolism and helps
the brain send messages for improved mental endurance and focus†.

This blend is completed with the patented Teacrine ® . Among its many benefits includes increases
in energy without the jittery feeling, increases in motivation to accomplish tasks, mental energy
and decreases in feeling of fatigue†.

• Quick and Sustained Energy Complex is the energy core of PRIMAL Preworkout . It is
powered by a combination of tried-and-true caffeine, along with an herbal complex of green tea,
coffee bean extract and guarana†.

• Electrolyte Complex to support muscle hydration and help get you through those intense
training sessions – because proper hydration is key for maximal performance. PRIMAL
Preworkout tops it off with a combination of AstraGin ® to support nutrient uptake and Senactiv,
which helps the production of citrate synthase, an important enzyme that is responsible for
producing more ATP†.

How to Use PRIMAL
30 minutes prior to training, consume 2 rounded scoops (20.3g) with 8-12 oz of water or your
favorite beverage. Users that are sensitive to stimulants should start off with 1 rounded scoop
(10.1g) to assess tolerance.

PRIMAL Preworkout

• Enhances energy and endurance†
• Supports muscle hydration†
• Supports intense focus†
• Contains AstraGin ® to support nutrient uptake†
• Contains Senactiv ® which helps the production of citrate synthase, an important enzyme that is
responsible for producing more ATP†
• Absorption and nutrient enhancers
• Great tasting, easy to mix

PRIMAL is a pre-workout that will power your performance and enable you to crush it every time you train.

For additional information, visit
†These statements have not been evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This product is not
intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Title: PRIMAL Preworkout
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Published Date: Thu, 21 Jul 2022 16:51:41 +0000

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