Connect with us

Planetary nebula are some of nature’s most stunning visual displays. The name is confusing since they’re the remains of stars, not planets. But that doesn’t detract from their status as objects of captivating beauty and intense scientific study.

Like all planetary nebula, the Southern Ring Nebula is the remnant of a star like our Sun. As these stars age, they will eventually become red giants, expanding and shedding layers of gas out into space. Eventually, the red giant becomes a white dwarf, a stellar remnant bereft of fusion that emanates whatever residual thermal energy it has without ever generating anymore. The white dwarf lights up the shells of gas expelled earlier, and we get to enjoy the show.

When the long-awaited JWST started delivering images, the Southern Ring Nebula (NGC 3132) was one of its first targets. It was one of five objects that made up the telescope’s first science results. The JWST’s images revealed something surprising about NGC 3132: it has two stars. The white dwarf is in the center of NGC 3132 and its companion is between 40 to 60 AU away, about the same distance as Pluto is from the Sun.

Researchers wanted to understand more about the Southern Ring Nebula’s structure. The JWST works in the infrared and can image warm hydrogen in the nebula. But to get a more complete image of the nebula, a team of researchers from the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) turned to the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA can sense the cooler CO (carbon monoxide) in the nebula beyond the JWST’s reach. It sensed CO’s presence and measured its velocity and the velocities of other molecules.

The research is published in The Astrophysical Journal titled “The Molecular Exoskeleton of the Ring-like Planetary Nebula NGC 3132.” Professor Joel Kastner from the RIT School of Physics and Astronomy is the lead author.

The new observations showed that most of the nebula’s hydrogen gas is in a large expanding ring and that a second expanding ring lies almost perpendicular to the first.

“JWST showed us the molecules of hydrogen and how they stack up in the sky, while the Submillimeter Array shows us the carbon monoxide that is colder that you can’t see in the JWST image,” explained Kastner.

This figure from the study shows the velocities of three molecules in NGC 3132 as measured by the SMA. From left to right: 12CO, 13CO, and CN (cyanide.) The images clearly show the primary ring in the nebula. Image Credit: Kastner et al. 2024.
This figure from the study shows the velocities of three molecules in NGC 3132 as measured by the SMA. From left to right: 12CO, 13CO, and CN (cyanide.) The images clearly show the primary ring in the nebula. Image Credit: Kastner et al. 2024.

“The extra velocity dimension from the array’s radio wavelength observations then effectively allows us to see the nebula in 3-D. When we started to turn the whole nebula around in 3-D, we immediately saw it really was a ring, and then we were amazed to see there was another ring,” Kastner said.

“Surprisingly, the data further reveal that the nebula also appears to harbor a second, dust-rich molecular ring (Ring 2)—detected in (dust) absorption, in low-excitation emission lines, in H2, and (now) in 12CO(2–1)—that appears to lie nearly perpendicular to Ring 1,” the authors explain in their published research.

This figure from the study shows the SMA observations of NGC 3132 in the left column and the JWST infrared image in the right column. The bottom images show the different velocities of molecules in the nebula. The light blue velocity shows the presence of the main ring, but the red and pink high-velocity clumps show the presence of a second ring. Image Credit: Kastner et al. 2024. Did you miss our previous article…
https://mansbrand.com/will-we-know-if-trappist-1e-has-life/

Continue Reading

Frontier Adventure

An Essentials-Only Backpacking Gear Checklist

Tet19 047 Me on Teton Crest Trail copy cropped 40

By Michael Lanza

What do you need to pack for a three-season backpacking trip? While the specific items depend in part on factors like the time of year, your companions and backpacking style, the trip’s length and the weather forecast, this story provides a core checklist of essential gear to help you organize and efficiently pack—and avoid overpacking—for virtually any backpacking trip.

I use the checklist below for just about every three-season backpacking trip I take in the U.S. and around the world. I’ve developed it over more than three decades of multi-day backcountry trips and more than a quarter-century of writing about backpacking trips and testing and reviewing backpacking gear and apparel, including the 10 years I spent as a lead gear reviewer and Northwest Editor of Backpacker magazine and even longer running this blog.

Tet19 047 Me on Teton Crest Trail copy cropped 41
Hi, I’m Michael Lanza, creator of The Big Outside. Click here to sign up for my FREE email newsletter. Join The Big Outside to get full access to all of my blog’s stories. Click here for my e-books to classic backpacking trips. Click here to learn how I can help you plan your next trip.

Backpackers on the Tonto Trail in the Grand Canyon.
” data-image-caption=”Mark Fenton and Todd Arndt backpacking the Tonto Trail in the Grand Canyon. Click photo to read about “the best backpacking trip in the Grand Canyon.”
” data-medium-file=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/06231800/Gran8-036-Backpackers-on-the-Tonto-Trail-Grand-Canyon.jpg?fit=300%2C200&ssl=1″ data-large-file=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/06231800/Gran8-036-Backpackers-on-the-Tonto-Trail-Grand-Canyon.jpg?fit=900%2C600&ssl=1″ src=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/06231800/Gran8-036-Backpackers-on-the-Tonto-Trail-Grand-Canyon-1024×683.jpg?resize=900%2C600&ssl=1″ alt=”Backpackers on the Tonto Trail in the Grand Canyon.” class=”wp-image-36029″ srcset=”https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/06231800/Gran8-036-Backpackers-on-the-Tonto-Trail-Grand-Canyon.jpg 1024w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/06231800/Gran8-036-Backpackers-on-the-Tonto-Trail-Grand-Canyon.jpg 300w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/06231800/Gran8-036-Backpackers-on-the-Tonto-Trail-Grand-Canyon.jpg 768w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/06231800/Gran8-036-Backpackers-on-the-Tonto-Trail-Grand-Canyon.jpg 1080w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/06231800/Gran8-036-Backpackers-on-the-Tonto-Trail-Grand-Canyon.jpg 1200w” sizes=”(max-width: 900px) 100vw, 900px” data-recalc-dims=”1″ />Mark Fenton and Todd Arndt backpacking the Tonto Trail in the Grand Canyon. Click photo to read about “the best backpacking trip in the Grand Canyon.”

The list below is preceded by some insights on how I make gear choices. The links in this story and checklist will take you to menus of product reviews; photos link to stories about those trips.

See my Custom Trip Planning page to learn how I can help you plan your next trip—including answering all of your questions. Please share your thoughts on my list and tips and offer your own suggestions in the comments section at the bottom of this story. I try to respond to all comments.

Plan your next great backpacking trip in Yosemite, Grand Teton,
and other parks using my expert e-books.

A backpacker hiking over Clouds Rest in Yosemite National Park.
” data-image-caption=”Jeff Wilhelm backpacking over Clouds Rest in Yosemite National Park. Click the photo for my e-book “The Best First Backpacking Trip in
Did you miss our previous article…
https://mansbrand.com/the-fine-art-of-stashing-a-backpack-in-the-woods-3/

Continue Reading

Frontier Adventure

The Fine Art of Stashing a Backpack in the Woods

Tet19 047 Me on Teton Crest Trail copy cropped 38

By Michael Lanza

Stashing a backpack in the woods is just what it sounds like. If you’re on a multi-day backpacking trip and want to take a side hike of any significant distance, like to a summit, and then return to the same spot to resume your backpacking route, it’s a waste of energy (not to mention entirely pointless) to carry your heavy pack with you. But there are ways to do it wrong, and ways to make sure your pack and everything inside it are still there and not torn apart or gone when you return. Here’s how to do it right.

The tips below are based on my experience of many thousands of trail miles and more than three decades of backpacking, dayhiking, climbing, trail running, and taking ultra-hikes and ultra-runs—including more than a quarter-century of doing this professionally and testing and reviewing gear as a past field editor for Backpacker magazine and running this blog.

Tet19 047 Me on Teton Crest Trail copy cropped 39
Hi, I’m Michael Lanza, creator of The Big Outside. Click here to sign up for my FREE email newsletter. Join The Big Outside to get full access to all of my blog’s stories. Click here for my e-books to classic backpacking trips. Click here to learn how I can help you plan your next trip.

A backpacker hiking the Spray Park Trail in Mount Rainier National Park.
” data-image-caption=”Todd Arndt hiking the Spray Park Trail in Mount Rainier National Park.
” data-medium-file=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/06230643/Todd-Arndt-hiking-the-Spray-Park-Trail-Mount-Rainier-National-Park-.jpg?fit=200%2C300&ssl=1″ data-large-file=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/06230643/Todd-Arndt-hiking-the-Spray-Park-Trail-Mount-Rainier-National-Park-.jpg?fit=683%2C1024&ssl=1″ src=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/06230643/Todd-Arndt-hiking-the-Spray-Park-Trail-Mount-Rainier-National-Park–683×1024.jpg?resize=683%2C1024&ssl=1″ alt=”A backpacker hiking the Spray Park Trail in Mount Rainier National Park.” class=”wp-image-41154″ style=”width:602px;height:903px” srcset=”https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/06230643/Todd-Arndt-hiking-the-Spray-Park-Trail-Mount-Rainier-National-Park-.jpg 683w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/06230643/Todd-Arndt-hiking-the-Spray-Park-Trail-Mount-Rainier-National-Park-.jpg 200w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/06230643/Todd-Arndt-hiking-the-Spray-Park-Trail-Mount-Rainier-National-Park-.jpg 768w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/06230643/Todd-Arndt-hiking-the-Spray-Park-Trail-Mount-Rainier-National-Park-.jpg 800w” sizes=”(max-width: 683px) 100vw, 683px” data-recalc-dims=”1″ />Todd Arndt hiking the Spray Park Trail in Mount Rainier National Park. Click photo to read about that trip.

Basically, you want to make sure no animals (including humans) will find it and take or damage the pack or anything inside. Most hikers aren’t dishonest, but some adults might mistakenly think a pack was inadvertently left behind and assume it’s fair game for whomever finds it, or that they should deliver it to whatever agency manages the land so that its owner might reclaim it later (which is not helpful to you for the remainder of your hike); and kids will more readily take something they find.

That’s more of a concern for me on popular hikes that attract a lot of inexperienced hikers. In more remote areas, where you’ll generally only see experienced backpackers who aren’t likely to make that assumption, I worry less about a pack being visible to people.

Wild animals are a concern virtually everywhere. Rodents, squirrels, and larger animals like
Did you miss our previous article…
https://mansbrand.com/hubbles-back-but-only-using-one-gyro/

Continue Reading

Frontier Adventure

Hubble’s Back, but Only Using One Gyro

Hubble gyros

The Hubble Space Telescope has experienced ongoing problems with one of its three remaining gyroscopes, so NASA has decided to shift the telescope into single gyro mode. While the venerable space telescope has now returned to daily science operations, single gyro mode means Hubble will only use one gyro to maintain a lock on its target. This will slow its slew time and decrease some of its scientific output. But this plan increases the overall lifetime of the 34-year-old telescope, keeping one gyro in reserve. NASA is also troubleshooting the malfunctioning gyro, hoping to return it online.

Last week, NASA said that the telescope and its instruments are stable and functioning normally.

Gyroscopes help the telescope orient itself in space, keeping it stable to precisely point at astronomical targets in the distant Universe. Hubble went into safe mode back in November 2023, and then again in April and May 2024 due to the ongoing issue, where the one gyro had been increasingly returning faulty readings.

Hubble gyros 1
The end of a Hubble gyro reveals the hair-thin wires known as flex leads. They carry data and electricity inside the gyro. Credit: NASA

Going in to safe mode suspends science operations, and in the meantime, engineers tried to troubleshoot to figure out why the gyro experiencing the fault-producing issues and doing work-arounds to get the telescope up and running again. The most recent last safe-mode event in May led the Hubble team to transition from a three-gyro operating mode to observing with only one gyro. This enables more consistent science observations while keeping the other operational gyro available for future use.

Launched in 1990, Hubble has more than doubled its expected design lifetime, providing stunning images and scientific discoveries that have changed our understanding of the Universe and re-written astronomy textbooks.

During its 34-year history, Hubble has had eight out of 22 gyros fail due to a corroded flex lead, which are thin (less than the width of a human hair) metal wires, that carry power in, and data out, of the gyro. The flex leads pass through a thick fluid inside the gyro and over time, the flex leads begin to corrode and can physically bend or break.

mike good hubble sm4
With his feet firmly anchored on the shuttle’s robotic arm, astronaut Mike Good maneuvers to retrieve the tool caddy required to repair the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph during the final Hubble servicing mission in May 2009. Periodic upgrades have kept the telescope equipped with state-of-the-art instruments, which have given astronomers increasingly better views of the cosmos. Credits: NASA

Thankfully, for the first 18 years of Hubble’s life in space, the telescope had the advantage of being able to be serviced and upgraded by space shuttle astronauts. For example, in 1999, four out of six gyros had failed, with the last one failing about a month before a servicing mission was scheduled to replace them (and do other upgrades to the telescope). This meant Hubble sat in safe mode waiting for the space shuttle and astronauts to arrive.

When the final planned Hubble servicing mission was (temporarily) canceled following the space shuttle Columbia disaster, engineers developed and inaugurated a two-gyro mode to prolong Hubble’s life. The mission was reinstated after outcry from scientists and the public, and so NASA figured out a way to mitigate the risks of flying the space shuttle. Servicing Mission 4 replaced all six gyros one last time in 2009, but it has been running on three since 2018. The
Did you miss our previous article…
https://mansbrand.com/a-new-way-to-prove-if-primordial-black-holes-contribute-to-dark-matter/

Continue Reading

Trending