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It was an exciting time when, two weeks ago, SpaceX got the clearance it needed to conduct its first orbital flight test with the Starshipand Super Heavy launch system. After years of waiting, SN flight tests, static fire tests, and stacking and unstacking, the long-awaited test of the SN24 Starship and BN7 Booster prototype was on! For this flight, SpaceX hoped to achieve an altitude of at least 150 km (90 mi) above sea level, crossing the 100 km (62 mi) threshold that officially marks the boundary of “space” (aka. the Karman Line) and making a partial transit around the world before splashing down off the coast of Hawaii.

Unfortunately, things began to go awry a few minutes into the flight as the Starship prototype failed to separate from the booster, sending the rocket into a spin that ended in an explosion. While Musk and SpaceX issued statements that the test was largely successful and lots of valuable data was obtained, residents and environmental researchers claim the explosion caused damage to houses in the area and the local environment. In response, the FAA has launched a “mishap investigation,” temporarily grounding the Starship until the explosion’s impact can be assessed.

The timing of the flight test was certainly fortuitous, falling on April 20th (4/20) exactly as Musk had previously predicted. Everything appeared to be in the green as all 33 engines of the BN7 booster fired, and the fully-stacked and fueled prototype lifted off without incident. About three and a half minutes into the flight, when stage separation was supposed to occur, the Starship began an uncontrolled tumble and was destroyed by onboard charges. The SN24 and BN7 managed to reach an altitude of 40 km (25 miles) before the anomaly occurred.

Musk commended the ground teams, tweeting, “Congrats @SpaceX team on an exciting test launch of Starship! Learned a lot for next test launch in a few months.” At the same time, it was clear that some sizeable changes needed to be made. In addition to the mid-air explosion, the launch also destroyed the launchpad, which sent debris flying in all directions. This raised the issue of a deluge system that the Boca Chica launch site does not have (unlike other launch facilities). These systems rely on a “flame trench” to channel rocket exhaust and water or foam to suppress shockwaves and flames.

Musk was sure to temper expectations before the flight, saying in a Twitter discussion on April 16th that when you have a spacecraft that’s got “33 engines on the booster, got six engines on the upper stage of the ship. It’s a lot of engines! It’s like having a box of grenades, really big grenades.” He was also sure to cite SpaceX’s track record with rapid prototyping, which has always involved “testing to failure” and a lot of trial and error:

“This is really kind of the sort of first step in a very long journey that will require many, many flights. For those that have followed the history of Falcon 9, and Falcon 1 actually, and our attempts at reusability, I think it might have been close to 20 attempts before we actually recovered a stage. And then it took many more flights before we had reusability that was meaningful, where we didn’t have to rebuild the whole rocket.”

To residents and environmentalists, the test was not an occasion for celebration. Ever since SpaceX broke ground in Boca Chica and began testing, Musk has had a strained relationship with the locals, who have frequently complained about noise and the impact these tests have on their communities and the natural environment. According to Pablo De La Rosa, a reporter with Texas Public Radio (TPR) and NPR, there were multiple reports of “particulates” raining down on South Padre Island up the coast and on the nearby town of Port Isabel.

The IOP/SS system deploys almost a half-million gallons of water in one minute to protect the SLS during launch. Image Credit: NASA
The IOP/SS system deploys almost a half-million gallons of water in one minute to protect the SLS during launch. Credit: NASA

Residents in the town also reported broken windows “and ash-like particles covering their homes and schools.” The Sierra Club cited similar reports, with Dan Cortez
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Backpacking the Teton Crest Trail—A Photo Gallery

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By Michael Lanza

As we hiked up the North Fork of Cascade Canyon on the Teton Crest Trail in Grand Teton National Park, moments after the path emerged from the forest into a meadow strewn with boulders and still dappled with blooming wildflowers in late August, my friend David turned to look over his shoulder and blurted out, “Oh, wow, look at that view!” Behind us, the sheer north faces of the Grand Teton and Mount Owen towered a vertical mile above us, shooting straight up over the canyon like fireworks (photo above).

By that point on our trip, though, uncontrolled outbursts of awe were occurring several times a day. That’s what it’s like to backpack the Teton Crest Trail.

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Hi, I’m Michael Lanza, creator of The Big Outside. Click here to sign up for my FREE email newsletter. Join The Big Outside to get full access to all of my blog’s stories. Click here for my e-books to classic backpacking trips. Click here to learn how I can help you plan your next trip.

A backpacker on the Teton Crest Trail in Grand Teton National Park.
” data-image-caption=”Jeff Wilhelm backpacking the Teton Crest Trail in Grand Teton National Park. Click photo for my e-book “The Complete Guide to Backpacking the Teton Crest Trail.”
” data-medium-file=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/06232037/DSC_2401.jpg?fit=300%2C200&ssl=1″ data-large-file=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/06232037/DSC_2401.jpg?fit=900%2C599&ssl=1″ src=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/06232037/DSC_2401-1024×681.jpg?resize=900%2C599&ssl=1″ alt=”A backpacker on the Teton Crest Trail in Grand Teton National Park.” class=”wp-image-35224″ srcset=”https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/06232037/DSC_2401.jpg 1024w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/06232037/DSC_2401.jpg 300w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/06232037/DSC_2401.jpg 768w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/06232037/DSC_2401.jpg 1080w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/06232037/DSC_2401.jpg 1200w” sizes=”(max-width: 900px) 100vw, 900px” data-recalc-dims=”1″ />Jeff Wilhelm backpacking the Teton Crest Trail in Grand Teton National Park. Click photo for my e-book “The Complete Guide to Backpacking the Teton Crest Trail.”

Three friends and I backpacked a 36-mile traverse of Grand Teton National Park, mostly on the Teton Crest Trail, in late August—in many ways, an ideal time to hike there. While I’ve backpacked the TCT several times now, it was the first time for all three of them.

Seeing the reactions of these friends—every one of them very experienced backpackers who’ve taken numerous trips with me—to the scenery along this classic trek, reaffirmed my opinion that few multi-day hikes offer so much grandeur almost every step of way like the Teton Crest Trail. But I’ll let the photos in this story make that case.

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A backpacker on the Teton Crest Trail in Grand Teton National Park.
” data-image-caption=”David Gordon backpacking the Teton Crest Trail in Grand Teton National Park. Click photo to get my customized help planning your trip.
” data-medium-file=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/06232029/DSC_2658.jpg?fit=300%2C175&ssl=1″ data-large-file=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/06232029/DSC_2658.jpg?fit=900%2C525&ssl=1″ src=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces
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New Simulation Explains how Supermassive Black Holes Grew so Quickly

quasar 1024x607 1

One of the main scientific objectives of next-generation observatories (like the James Webb Space Telescope) has been to observe the first galaxies in the Universe – those that existed at Cosmic Dawn. This period is when the first stars, galaxies, and black holes in our Universe formed, roughly 50 million to 1 billion years after the Big Bang. By examining how these galaxies formed and evolved during the earliest cosmological periods, astronomers will have a complete picture of how the Universe has changed with time.

As addressed in previous articles, the results of Webb‘s most distant observations have turned up a few surprises. In addition to revealing that galaxies formed rapidly in the early Universe, astronomers also noticed these galaxies had particularly massive supermassive black holes (SMBH) at their centers. This was particularly confounding since, according to conventional models, these galaxies and black holes didn’t have enough time to form. In a recent study, a team led by Penn State astronomers has developed a model that could explain how SMBHs grew so quickly in the early Universe.

The research team was led by W. Niel Brandt, the Eberly Family Chair Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at Penn State’s Eberly College of Science. Their research is described in two papers presented at the 244th meeting of the American Astronomical Society (AAS224), which took place from June 9th to June 13th in Madison, Wisconsin. Their first paper, “Mapping the Growth of Supermassive Black Holes as a Function of Galaxy Stellar Mass and Redshift,” appeared on March 29th in The Astrophysical Journal, while the second is pending publication. Fan Zou, an Eberly College graduate student, was the lead author of both papers.

Illustration of an active quasar. What role does its dark matter halo play in activating the quasar? Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser
Illustration of an active quasar. New research shows that SMBHs eat rapidly enough to trigger them. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

As they note in their papers, SMBHs grow through two main channels: by accreting cold gas from their host galaxy or merging with the SMBHs of other galaxies. When it comes to accretion, previous research has shown that a black hole’s accretion rate (BHAR) is strongly linked to its galaxy’s stellar mass and the redshift of its general stellar population. “Supermassive black holes in galaxy centers have millions-to-billions of times the mass of the Sun,” explained Zhou in a recent NASA press release. How do they become such monsters? This is a question that astronomers have been studying for decades, but it has been difficult to track all the ways black holes can grow reliably.”

For their research, the team relied on forefront X-ray sky survey data obtained by NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, the ESA’s X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission-Newton (XMM-Newton), and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics’ eROSITA telescope. They measured the accretion-driven growth in a sample of 8000 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) located in 1.3 million galaxies. This was combined with IllustrisTNG, a suite of state-of-the-art cosmological simulations that model galaxy formation, evolution, and mergers from Cosmic Dawn to the present. This combined approach has provided the best modeling to date of SMBH growth over the past 12 billion years. Said Brandt:

“During the process of consuming gas from their hosting galaxies, black holes radiate strong X-rays, and this is the key to tracking their growth by accretion. We measured the accretion-driven growth using X-ray sky survey data accumulated over more than 20 years from three of the most powerful X-ray facilities ever launched into space.

“In our hybrid approach, we combine the observed growth by accretion with the simulated growth through mergers to reproduce the growth history of supermassive black holes. With this new approach, we believe we have produced the most realistic picture of the growth of supermassive black holes up to the present day.”

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This still image shows the timeline running from the Big
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10 Tips for Taking Kids on Their First Backpacking Trip

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By Michael Lanza

Whether you’re a family of novices planning your first backpacking trip or an experienced backpacker ready to take your kids on their first multi-day hike, heed this friendly advice: You’re in for some surprises. And I speak from experience. I’d been backpacking for years—in fact, I was already working as a professional backpacker—when my wife (also a longtime backpacker) and I first dove into the grand new adventure of taking our young kids into the wilderness.

We learned a lot. But the biggest lesson was this: Our backcountry adventures brought us closer together as a family and helped mold our children into eager and skilled backpackers and confident young adults with a passion and appreciation for the outdoors—and who seize every chance to spend time with us (their parents!) outdoors (and indoors!).

This article shares lessons I learned while taking our kids on countless backpacking trips since they were quite little and over the course of the 10 years I spent as Northwest Editor of Backpacker magazine and even longer running this blog.

Tet19 047 Me on Teton Crest Trail copy cropped 33
Hi, I’m Michael Lanza, creator of The Big Outside. Click here to sign up for my FREE email newsletter. Join The Big Outside to get full access to all of my blog’s stories. Click here for my e-books to classic backpacking trips. Click here to learn how I can help you plan your next trip.

A young girl backpacking the High Sierra Trail above Hamilton Lakes, Sequoia National Park.
” data-image-caption=”My daughter, Alex, backpacking the High Sierra Trail above Hamilton Lakes, Sequoia National Park, which is also the lead photo at the top of this story.
” data-medium-file=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/06230302/Sierra3-040-High-Sierra-Trail-above-Hamilton-Lakes-Sequoia-N.P.-CA-2.jpg?fit=300%2C199&ssl=1″ data-large-file=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/06230302/Sierra3-040-High-Sierra-Trail-above-Hamilton-Lakes-Sequoia-N.P.-CA-2.jpg?fit=900%2C598&ssl=1″ src=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/06230302/Sierra3-040-High-Sierra-Trail-above-Hamilton-Lakes-Sequoia-N.P.-CA-2-1024×680.jpg?resize=900%2C598&ssl=1″ alt=”A young girl backpacking the High Sierra Trail above Hamilton Lakes, Sequoia National Park.” class=”wp-image-45459″ srcset=”https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/06230302/Sierra3-040-High-Sierra-Trail-above-Hamilton-Lakes-Sequoia-N.P.-CA-2.jpg 1024w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/06230302/Sierra3-040-High-Sierra-Trail-above-Hamilton-Lakes-Sequoia-N.P.-CA-2.jpg 300w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/06230302/Sierra3-040-High-Sierra-Trail-above-Hamilton-Lakes-Sequoia-N.P.-CA-2.jpg 768w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/06230302/Sierra3-040-High-Sierra-Trail-above-Hamilton-Lakes-Sequoia-N.P.-CA-2.jpg 150w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/06230302/Sierra3-040-High-Sierra-Trail-above-Hamilton-Lakes-Sequoia-N.P.-CA-2.jpg 1200w” sizes=”(max-width: 900px) 100vw, 900px” data-recalc-dims=”1″ />My daughter, Alex, backpacking the High Sierra Trail above Hamilton Lakes, Sequoia National Park.

Follow the tips below to make your family backpacking trips a success and ensure that your kids want to go again and again. Like many stories at The Big Outside, much of this one is free for anyone to read but reading the entire story requires a paid subscription. If you’re already a subscriber, thank you for supporting my blog.

Please share your thoughts, questions, or your own tips in the comments section at the bottom of this story. I try to
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