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Moon Dust Could Contaminate Lunar Explorers’ Water Supply

Aldrin bootprint C second impression

Water purification is a big business on Earth. Companies offer everything from desalination to providing just the right pH level for drinking water. But on the Moon, there won’t be a similar technical infrastructure to support the astronauts attempting to make a permanent base there. And there’s one particular material that will make water purification even harder – Moon dust. 

We’ve reported plenty of times about the health problems caused by the lunar regolith, so it seems apparent that you don’t want to drink it. Even more so, the abrasive dust can cause issues with seals, such as those used in electrolyzers to create rocket fuel out of in-situ water resources. It can even adversely affect water purification equipment itself. 

Unfortunately, this contamination is inevitable. Lunar dust is far too adhesive and electrostatically charged to be kept completely separate from the machinery that would recycle or purify the water. So, a group of researchers from DLR in Germany decided to test what would happen if you intentionally dissolved lunar regolith.

Fraser interviews Dr. Kevin Cannon, an expert in lunar dust mitigation.

The short answer is, unsurprisingly, nothing good. Dissolved lunar regolith causes pH, turbidity, and aluminum concentrations all exceed World Health Organization benchmarks for safe drinking water. This happened even with short exposure times (2 minutes) and static pH values, as they used a 5.5 pH buffer in part of the experiments. 

They didn’t use actual lunar dust for these experiments, but a simulant modeled on the regolith returned during the Apollo 16 mission. It mimics the regolith that is thought to be most similar to the Artemis landing sites. In addition to the pH changes and the amount of exposure time (which went up to 72 hours), the authors also varied the amount of dissolved oxygen in the system and the particle size of the simulant.

Those negative results occurred for every test variation, no matter what combination of the four control variables was used. Ultimately, that means engineers will have to devise a system to filter the water from these deposits before it can be recycled into the overall water system.

Aldrin bootprint C second impression 1
After taking the first boot print photo, astronaut Buzz Aldrin moved closer to the little rock and took this second shot. His boot was already completely covered in adhesive dust.
Credit: NASA

The paper explored some potential solutions for that water purification system. Each of the limits that were violated requires its purification methodology. In the author’s estimation, lowering the turbidity is the first requirement. To do so, they suggest doing standard filtration or allowing the dust particles to settle. 

Removing aluminum is next in importance, with another experiment showing that plants that grew in lunar soil showed signs of aluminum toxicity. Additional ions, including calcium, iron, and manganese, also need to be removed, as they were above acceptable levels in some test batches but not all. Removing these ions would require a reverse osmosis process or ion exchange. Ion removal is vital to a fully functional electrolyzer system as well. 

The authors seemed to be ultimately going after a platform to test and validate water purification processes for future lunar exploration missions. Given the results from their experimentation, there will undoubtedly be future rounds of testing and plenty of technology development to work on solving these technical challenges. Ultimately, astronauts will have to drink water on the Moon – and it won’t be coming just from bottles from Earth.

Learn More:
Freer, Pesch, & Zabel – Experimental study to characterize water contaminated by lunar dust
UT – The Moon Is Toxic
UT – Astronauts Will Be Tracking Dust Into the Lunar Gateway. Is This a Problem?
UT – Lunar Dust is Still One of The Biggest Challenges Facing Moon Exploration

Lead Image:
Turbidity samples of some of the dissolved regolith.
Credit – Freer, Pesch, & Zabel

The post Moon Dust Could Contaminate Lunar Explorers’ Water Supply appeared first on Universe Today.

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Baller Awards

Unseen pictures from Anant-Radhikas mehendi ceremony surface online

ambaniweddingmehendi21721650815

ambaniweddingmehendi21721650815 1 Anant Ambani and Radhika Merchant’s wedding festivities might be over, but the beautiful moments from the festivities keep surfacing online. A new picture from their mehendi ceremony surfaced online, featuring best friends Ananya Panday and Shanaya Kapoor. The two are seen posing with renowned mehendi artist Veena Nagda, showing off their elegant henna designs.

View this post on Instagram

A post shared by Veena Bollywood Mehendi (@veenanagda)



Ananya looked gorgeous in a royal purple lehenga paired with statement jewellery. Her fingertips were adorned with mehendi, and she had a delicate circle design in the center of her palm. Shanaya dazzled in a peach traditional outfit, paired with glittering jewels. She opted for a mandala design on the back of her hand with layered tips.

In another highlight, Nita Ambani chose a unique mehendi design that included the names of her family members: Anant, Radhika, Isha and husband Anand Piramal, son Akash and his wife Shloka Mehta, along with her husband Mukesh Ambani.

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By: Filmfare
Title: Unseen pictures from Anant-Radhikas mehendi ceremony surface online
Sourced From: www.filmfare.com/news/bollywood/unseen-pictures-from-anant-radhika-mehendi-ceremony-surface-online-67409.html
Published Date: 2024-07-22 18:35:49

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Tech

The Download: technological complexity, and climate change Catan

This is today’s edition of The Download our weekday newsletter that provides a daily dose of what’s going on in the world of technology.

The terrible complexity of technological problems

The philosopher Karl Popper once argued that there are two kinds of problems in the world: clock problems and cloud problems. As the metaphor suggests, clock problems obey a certain logic. The fix may not be easy, but it’s achievable.

Cloud problems offer no such assurances. They are inherently complex and unpredictable, and they usually have social, psychological, or political dimensions. Because of their dynamic, shape-shifting nature, trying to “fix” a cloud problem often ends up creating several new problems.

But there are ways to reckon with this kind of technological complexity—and the wicked problems it creates. Read the full story.

—Bryan Gardiner

These board games want you to beat climate change

The urgent need to address climate change might seem like unlikely fodder for a fun evening. But a growing number of games are attempting to take on the topic, including a version of the bestseller Catan released this summer.

Our climate reporter Casey Crownhart was curious about whether games could, even abstractly, represent the challenge of the climate crisis. Perhaps more crucially, could they possibly be any fun? Read the full story.

Both of these stories feature in the most recent print issue of MIT Technology Review, which explores the theme of Play. If you don’t already, subscribe now to be among the first to receive future copies.

The must-reads

I’ve combed the internet to find you today’s most fun/important/scary/fascinating stories about technology.

1 China is dropping sanctions against a US communications firm 
In an extremely rare about-turn. (Bloomberg $)
The flow of restricted goods through China to Russia has fallen. (Reuters)

2 OpenAI is closing a major safety loophole
Telling GPT-4o mini to ‘ignore all previous instructions’ will no longer work. (The Verge)

3 Nvidia is working on a premium AI chip for the Chinese market 
Bringing its Blackwell chip in line with US export controls. (Reuters)
What’s next in chips. (MIT Technology Review)

4 This new nuclear reactor is entirely meltdown-proof
And could serve as the blueprint to assuage fears around other reactors. (New Scientist $)
There’s fears that nuclear fuel could be repurposed into weapons. (The Verge)
The next generation of nuclear reactors is getting more advanced. Here’s how. (MIT Technology Review)

5 Amazon’s returns policy is a total mess
Spare a thought for the poor retail staff who have to deal with it. (WP $)

6 Ethiopia wasn’t ready to ban importing gas and diesel vehicles
Almost six months into the ban, the country is struggling. (Rest of World)
Three frequently asked questions about EVs, answered. (MIT Technology Review)

7 Digital nomad visas are a hard sell in south-east Asia
Remote workers are just entering as tourists instead. (FT $)
The world isn’t ready for digital workers, either. (The Guardian)

8 Developing film photos is a lost art 
You never quite know how they’re going to turn out. (404 Media)

9 Billionaire dressing is out, mogul style is in
Jensen Huang remains the only tech boss to nail corporate chic. (The Guardian)
Hoodies are still fine, but polo shirts are out. (The Information $)

10 EA’s new video game stars AI replicas of real college football players
It was a huge gamble that appears to have paid off. (WSJ $)
How generative AI could reinvent what it means to play. (MIT Technology Review)

Quote of the day

“They are so filled with rage that they have lost all sense of human decency and respect.”

—Richard Zhang, 30, describes the extremely negative reactions to his decision to buy a Cybertruck to the New York Times.

The big story

The humble oyster could hold the key to restoring coastal waters. Developers hate it.

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October 2023

Carol Friend has taken on a difficult job. She is one of the 10 people in Delaware currently trying to make it as a cultivated oyster farmer.

Her Salty Witch Oyster Company holds a lease to grow the mollusks as part of the state’s new program for aquaculture, launched in 2017. It has sputtered despite its obvious promise.

Five years after the first farmed oysters went into the Inland Bays, the aquaculture industry remains in a larval stage. Oysters themselves are almost mythical in their ability to clean and filter water. But

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By: Rhiannon Williams
Title: The Download: technological complexity, and climate change Catan
Sourced From: www.technologyreview.com/2024/07/22/1095178/the-download-technological-complexity-and-climate-change-catan/
Published Date: Mon, 22 Jul 2024 12:10:00 +0000

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