Connect with us

Astronomers have discovered an intense binary star system located about 1,400 light years away. It contains a brown dwarf with 80 times the mass of Jupiter which is bound closely with an incredibly hot white dwarf star. Observations have shown the brown dwarf is tidally locked to the white dwarf, allowing the daytime surface temperatures on the brown dwarf to reach 8,000 Kelvin (7,700 Celsius, 14,000 Fahrenheit) — which is much hotter than the surface of the Sun, which is about 5,700 K (5,427 C, 9,800 F). The brown dwarf’s nightside, on the other hand, is about 6,000 degrees K cooler.

This object, which orbits the white dwarf star named WD-0032–317, straddles the line between a being a brown dwarf and a so-called hot-Jupiter exoplanet. If classified as a hot Jupiter, it readily surpasses the exoplanet that was previously thought to be the hottest ever detected, KELT-9b at 4,600 K.

“We’ve identified a star-orbiting hot Jupiter-like object that is the hottest ever found, about 2,000 degrees hotter than the surface of the Sun,” said lead author of the study Dr. Na’ama Hallakoun, a postdoctoral fellow at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel.

The research was published in Nature Astronomy.

This object is very large compared to the host star it orbits, which is 10,000 times fainter than a normal star. This allows the brown dwarf/hot Jupiter to be observed and studied much easier than other objects that orbit close to their star. “This makes it a perfect laboratory for future studies of hot Jupiters’ extreme conditions,” Hallakoun added.

Brown dwarfs are sometimes called failed stars because they are not massive enough to power hydrogen fusion reactions. However, unlike gas giant planets, brown dwarfs are massive enough to survive the gravitational pull of their stellar partners.

wdbds 1024x819 2
The average temperatures of various exoplanets. Credit: Hallakoun, et al

“Stars’ gravity can cause objects that get too close to break apart, but this brown dwarf is dense, with 80 times the mass of Jupiter squeezed into the size of Jupiter,” Hallakoun said in a press release. “This allows it to survive intact and form a stable, binary system.”

This brown dwarf orbits the white dwarf so closely that its period is only 2.5 hours.

The white dwarf star, WD-0032–317, is the remnant of a sun-like star after it depleted its nuclear fuel. It’s classified as an A-type star with a mass about half that of the Sun, and a surface temperature of 37,000 K, which is incredibly hot, even for a white dwarf.

esogalaxy 1024x680 1
A view of the Milky Way from Paranal, Chile. Credit: ESO/Y. Beletsky

It was discovered by analyzing spectroscopic data from the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope in Chile.

“Hot Jupiters are the antithesis of habitable planets – they are dramatically inhospitable places for life,” Hallakoun said. “Future high-resolution spectroscopic observations of this hot Jupiter-like system – ideally made with NASA’s new James Webb Space Telescope – may reveal how hot, highly irradiated conditions impact atmospheric structure, something that could help us understand exoplanets elsewhere in the universe.”

The post This Brown Dwarf is 2,000 Degrees Hotter Than the Sun appeared first on Universe Today.

Did you miss our previous article…
https://mansbrand.com/spacecraft-could-shuttle-astronauts-and-supplies-to-and-from-the-moon-on-a-regular-basis/

Continue Reading

Frontier Adventure

Finally, an Explanation for the Moon’s Radically Different Hemispheres

Apollo16 jpg

Pink Floyd was wrong, there is no dark side to the Moon. There is however, a far side. The tidal effects between the Earth and Moon have caused this captured or synchronous rotation. The two sides display very different geographical features; the near side with mare and ancient volcanic flows while the far side displaying craters within craters. New research suggests the Moon has turned itself inside out with heavy elements like titanium returning to the surface. It’s now thought that a giant impact on the far side pushed titanium to the surface, creating a thinner more active near side. 

There have been a number of theories for the formation of the Moon; the capture theory and the accretion theory to name two of them. Perhaps the most accepted theory now is the giant impact theory which suggests Earth was struck by a large object, causing a lot of debris to be ejected into orbit. This material eventually coalesced to form the Moon we know and love today.

In the decades that followed the Apollo missions, scientists studied the rocks returned by the astronauts. The studies revealed that many of the surface rocks contained unexpectedly high concentrations of titanium. More surprisingly was that satellite observations revealed these titanium rich minerals were far more common on the nearside and absent on the far-side. What is known is that the Moon formed fast and hot and would have been covered for a short period in an ocean of molten magma. The magma cooled and solidified forming the Moon’s crust but trapped below was the more dense material including titanium and iron. 

Apollo16 1 jpg
Sample collection on the surface of the Moon. Apollo 16 astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr. is shown collecting samples with the Lunar Roving Vehicle in the left background. Image: NASA

The dense material should have sunk to greater depths inside the Moon however over the years that followed something strange seems to have happened. The denser material did indeed sink, mixed with mantle but melted and returned to the surface as titanium rich lava flows. Debates have been raging whether this is exactly what happened but a new piece of research by a team at the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory offer more details about the process and how the interior of the Moon evolved.

It has already been suggested that the Moon may have suffered a giant impact on the far side causing the heavier elements to be forced over to the near side but the new study highlighted supporting evidence from gravitational anomalies. The team measured tiny variations in the Moon’s gravitational field from data from the GRAIL mission. GRAIL – or Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory – orbited the Moon to create the most accurate gravitational map of the Moon to date. Using GRAIL data the team discovered that titanium-iron oxide minerals had migrated to the near side and sunk to the interior in sheetlike cascades. This was consistent with models suggesting the event occurred more than 4.22 billion years ago. 

image 7213e Moon 1024x612 1 jpg
Global map of the Moon, as seen from the Clementine mission, showing the differences between the lunar near- and farside. Credit: NASA.

As paper co-author and LPL associate professor Jeff Andrews-Hanna said “The moon is fundamentally lopsided in every respect.” The near side feature known as Oceanus Procellarum is a great example. It is lower in elevation and has a lava flow covered thinner crust with high concentrations of titanium rich elements. This is very different on the far

Continue Reading

Frontier Adventure

Wireless Power Transmission Could Enable Exploration of the Far Side of the Moon

12441 750 1 jpg

How can future lunar exploration communicate from the far side of the Moon despite never being inline with the Earth? This is what a recent study submitted to Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics hopes to address as a pair of researchers from the IEEE Polytechnique Montréal investigated the potential for a wireless power transmission method (WPT) comprised of anywhere from one to three satellites located at Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 2 (EMLP-2) and a solar-powered receiver on the far side of the Moon. This study holds the potential to help scientists and future lunar astronauts maintain constant communication between the Earth and Moon since the lunar far side of the Moon is always facing away from Earth from the Moon’s rotation being almost entirely synced with its orbit around the Earth.

Here, Universe Today discusses this research with Dr. Gunes Karabulut Kurt, who is an associate professor at IEEE Polytechnique Montréal and the study’s co-author, regarding the motivation behind the study, significant results, follow-up research, and implications for WPT. So, what was the motivation behind this study?

“This research is motivated by the objective of overcoming the logistical and technical challenges associated with using traditional cables on the Moon’s surface,” Dr. Kurt tells Universe Today. “Laying cables on the Moon’s rough, dusty surface would lead to ongoing maintenance and wear problems, as lunar dust is highly abrasive. On the other hand, transporting large quantities of cables to the Moon requires a significant amount of fuel, which adds considerably to the mission’s costs.”

For the study, the researchers used a myriad of calculations and computer models to ascertain if one, two, or three satellites are sufficient within an EMLP-2 halo orbit to maintain both constant coverage of the lunar far side (LFS) and line of sight with the Earth. For context, EMLP-2 is located on the far side of the Moon with the halo orbit being perpendicular—or sideways—to the Moon’s orbit. The calculations involved in the study included the distances between each satellite, the antenna angles between the satellites and surface receiver, the amount of LFS surface coverage, and the amount of transmitted power between the satellites and LFS surface antennae. So, what were the most significant results from this study?

Dr. Kurt tells Universe Today their models concluded that three satellites in an EMLP-2 halo orbit and operating at equal distances from each other could “achieve continuous power beaming to a receiver optical antenna anywhere on the lunar far side” while maintaining 100 percent LFS coverage and line of sight with the Earth. “Aside triple satellite scheme that provides continuous LFS full coverage, even a two-satellite configuration provides full coverage during 88.60% of a full cycle around the EMLP-2 halo orbit,” Dr. Kurt adds.

12441 750 1 1 jpg
Schematic from Figure 1 of the study displaying the wireless power transmission and receiver on the lunar far side with three satellites (SPS-1, SPS-2, and SPS-3) in a halo orbit at the Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 2. (Credit: Donmez & Kurt (2024))

Regarding follow-up research, Dr. Kurt tells Universe Today, “Our future studies will focus on more complex harvesting and transmission models to get closer to reality. On the other hand, an approach that takes into account the irregular nature of lunar dust and the variation in its density due to environmental factors such as subsolar angle and others. In the future, if research in this field continues, explore this experimentally with lunar dust simulants and lasers.”

This study comes as NASA is preparing to send astronauts to the Moon for the first time since 1972 with the Artemis program, whose goal will be to land the first woman and person of color on the lunar surface. With the success of the Artemis 1 mission in November 2022 that consisted of an uncrewed Orion capsule orbiting the Moon, NASA is currently targeting September 2025 for their Artemis 2 mission, which is scheduled to be a 10-day, 4-person crewed mission using the Orion capsule for a lunar flyby, whose goal will be to conduct a full systems checkout of the Orion capsule. Therefore, what implications can this study have for the upcoming Artemis missions, or any future human exploration of the Moon?

“The findings have implications for the design of energy transmission systems on the Moon,” Dr.
Did you miss our previous article…
https://mansbrand.com/the-best-base-layers-shorts-and-socks-for-hiking-and-running-3/

Continue Reading

Frontier Adventure

The Best Base Layers, Shorts and Socks for Hiking and Running

Tet19 047 Me on Teton Crest Trail copy cropped 12 jpg

By Michael Lanza

Let’s admit it: We don’t always take our base layers as seriously and we do our outerwear and insulation—or packs, tents, boots and other gear, for that matter. But this under-appreciated first stage in a layering system for the outdoors really sets the table for how comfortable you’ll be. Base layers that don’t perform well probably won’t kill you, but misery isn’t a good companion. This is what we wear against our skin. It matters.

After much testing from the trails to the mountains to the gym year-round, the long-sleeve tops, T-shirts, shorts, underwear, and socks reviewed here are the best I’ve found for dayhiking, backpacking, trail running, climbing, and training. And over the course of a quarter-century of testing and reviewing gear, including the 10 years I spent as the lead gear reviewer for Backpacker magazine and even longer running this blog, I’ve learned how to distinguish the mediocre from the excellent.

Light- and medium-weight T-shirts and long-sleeve tops are the most versatile because you can layer them in a wider range of temperatures to keep you drier and cooler, but fabrics and design features of tops and shorts also affect their temperature range and the activities for which they’re comfortable.

Tet19 047 Me on Teton Crest Trail copy cropped 13 jpg
Hi, I’m Michael Lanza, creator of The Big Outside. Click here to sign up for my FREE email newsletter. Join The Big Outside to get full access to all of my blog’s stories. Click here for my e-books to classic backpacking trips. Click here to learn how I can help you plan your next trip.

A backpacker above Oldman Lake along the Dawson Pass Trail in Glacier National Park.
” data-image-caption=”Jeff Wilhelm high above Oldman Lake along the Dawson Pass Trail in Glacier National Park. Click photo to see all e-books describing classic backpacking trips in Glacier and other national parks.
” data-medium-file=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/12/06224531/Gla7-125-Jeff-Wilhelm-above-Oldman-Lake-along-the-Dawson-Pass-Trail-in-Glacier-National-Park.jpg?fit=300%2C200&ssl=1″ data-large-file=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/12/06224531/Gla7-125-Jeff-Wilhelm-above-Oldman-Lake-along-the-Dawson-Pass-Trail-in-Glacier-National-Park.jpg?fit=900%2C600&ssl=1″ src=”https://i0.wp.com/tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/12/06224531/Gla7-125-Jeff-Wilhelm-above-Oldman-Lake-along-the-Dawson-Pass-Trail-in-Glacier-National-Park-1024×683.jpg?resize=900%2C600&ssl=1″ alt=”A backpacker above Oldman Lake along the Dawson Pass Trail in Glacier National Park.” class=”wp-image-61245″ srcset=”https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/12/06224531/Gla7-125-Jeff-Wilhelm-above-Oldman-Lake-along-the-Dawson-Pass-Trail-in-Glacier-National-Park.jpg 1024w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/12/06224531/Gla7-125-Jeff-Wilhelm-above-Oldman-Lake-along-the-Dawson-Pass-Trail-in-Glacier-National-Park.jpg 300w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/12/06224531/Gla7-125-Jeff-Wilhelm-above-Oldman-Lake-along-the-Dawson-Pass-Trail-in-Glacier-National-Park.jpg 768w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/12/06224531/Gla7-125-Jeff-Wilhelm-above-Oldman-Lake-along-the-Dawson-Pass-Trail-in-Glacier-National-Park.jpg 150w, https://tbo-media.sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/12/06224531/Gla7-125-Jeff-Wilhelm-above-Oldman-Lake-along-the-Dawson-Pass-Trail-in-Glacier-National-Park.jpg 1200w” sizes=”(max-width: 900px) 100vw, 900px” data-recalc-dims=”1″ />Jeff Wilhelm high above Oldman Lake along the Dawson Pass Trail in Glacier National Park. Click photo to see all e-books describing classic backpacking trips in Glacier
Did you miss our previous article…
https://mansbrand.com/could-life-exist-in-water-droplet-worlds-in-venus-atmosphere/

Continue Reading

Trending